Wallowa County, Oregon
Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.
Pesticide Table for MacFarlane's Four-O'clock | About MacFarlane's Four-O'clock
Oregon Map | ESPP Home
Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients
|2,4-D (ESTERS, SALTS, AMINES)||28|
|Code||Limitations On Pesticide Use|
|28||Do not apply within 100 yards of species habitat for aerial applications or within 20 yards of species habitat for ground applications.|
|32||Do not apply on rights-of-way within species habitat.|
|33||Do not apply within one-quarter mile of species habitat.|
MacFarlane's four o'clock [Mirabilis macfarlanei]
MacFarlane's four-o'clock is a perennial plant with heart shaped leaves and large purple or rose, trumpet shaped flowers. It grows in hemispherical clumps, 24 to 48 inches in diameter, from a sturdy taproot and has many freely branched stems that are swollen at the nodes. This plant is named after Ed MacFarlane, a boatman on the Snake River, who, in 1936, made this plant known to two passenger/botanists who described and named this plant after MacFarlane.
MacFarlane's four-o'clock grows in sandy soils on open steep slopes in canyon corridors in Oregon and Idaho. It requires a warm, dry climate with a winter rainy season that is common in the Salmon and Snake River Canyonland. Plants are widely scattered amongst grassy scrub dominated by, among others, bluebunch wheatgrass, scorpionweed, and cheatgrass.
Botanists believe that during periods of warmer climate, MacFarlane's four-o'clock spread across Oregon and Idaho. However, as temperatures cooled, this species' habitat dwindled to isolated canyons along the Snake and Salmon River. It now survives in two populations, comprised of seven colonies and spread over 60 acres, in Northwest Oregon and west-central Idaho. Population numbers are low and at one point it was beleived to be extinct.
Because MacFarlane's four-o'clock survives in a limited range and in low numbers, it is threatened by numerous natural and human threats. Competition and overcrowding from other plants, along with feeding Spittle Bugs, have strained reproduction and plant growth. A recreational trail that runs through the middle of the Oregon population makes it particularly vulnerable to casual collection and trampling.
The Fish and Wildlife Service has recommended several suggestions for recovery of this species: an exhaustive search to locate other possible colonies of this plant; securing at least different ten sites to maintain a healthy and stable population; and conducting proper management plans to protect plant sites. Currently, some plants are contained in a gentic reservoir to reseed thinning sites.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species Vol.II, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. pp. 279-280.