Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

UPDATE BRIEFING PAPER #8


ASPARAGUS: Background Information for a Transition Strategy

Production Information:
 Production Area

Acres Grown Percent Total US Acres Percent Total US Production Crop Utilization
 California 34,000 40 51 Fresh market
Michigan 20,000 24 11 Processed: Frozen and Canned
Washington 25,000 30 34 Processed: 70%

Fresh: 30%

AZ, OR, NJ, WI 5,000 6 4 NA

Production Notes:

Crop is hand harvested every 1-5 days. Pre-harvest intervals (PHI) and Re-entry intervals (REI) are important when considering alternatives.

National Usage (% Crop Treated) estimates for major insecticides used on asparagus:

Disulfoton - 35-53%                                Dimethoate - 1-5%

Carbaryl - 28-30%                                  Methomyl - 15%

Chlorpyrifos - 13-96%                            Malathion - 6-11%

Permethrin - 20%


PEST: Asparagus beetle

Pest management practices used to control this pest.
 OP's Carbamates Pyrethroids/ Pyrethrins Other Chemistries Other Control Methods
Chlorpyrifos: harvest and fern % treated: PHI=24 hrs

REI= 24 hrs



Malathion: fern and spears % treated:

PHI=24 hrs

REI=12 hrs


Dimethoate: (registered in 1996 except in CA. Little known use at this time)

Carbaryl: harvest and fern % treated:

PHI=24 hrs

REI=12 hrs



Methomyl: fern and spears % treated:

PHI=24-48 hrs

REI=48 hrs

Permethrin: fern and spears % treated:

PHI=1-3 days

REI=24 hrs



Pyrethrin: fern and spears % treated:

PHI=

REI=12 hrs

Rotenone: fern and spears % treated:

PHI=

REI= 12 hrs



Methoxychlor: fern and spears % treated:

PHI=72 hrs

REI=12 hrs


DAZA: dihydroazadirachtin (efficacy needs to be confirmed for this crop/pest)





NONE REPORTED

PIPELINE INFORMATION (leading to a Section 3 registration): Asparagus beetle

A. Chemical Uses
IR-4 AND REGISTRANT DEVELOPMENT TOLERANCE PETITIONS SUBMITTED TO EPA TOLERANCES PROPOSED BY EPA



TOLERANCES APPROVED BY EPA SECTION 18's/ EUP's APPROVED BY EPA APPLICATIONS FOR REGISTRATION SUBMITTED TO EPA
SPINOSAD (Success) IR-4 Project Beetle larvae control Field trials began in 1997

Expected submittal to EPA- 1999

NONE

NONE NONE NONE NONE 







B. Nonchemical Uses:

Michigan is currently working on biocontrol of this pest; successful experimental results; research is underway to expand success to commercial fields.

C. Notes:

** Loss of OP's for asparagus beetle control will cause no significant problems other than reducing tools available for resistance management. More concern if OP's and carbamates are lost.
Control of asparagus beetle of high importance to WA, extremely important in MI.
Carbaryl appears to be most commonly used pesticide, permethrin most likely replacement.
MI: control predominately at harvest, zero tolerance for beetle eggs on commodity.
WA: control primarily during fern stage, defoliation is of concern.
Tank mixes of malathion/carbaryl or malathion/permethrin are sometimes used.
Methoxychlor also reported to provide high level of control.


PEST: Asparagus aphid

Pest management practices used to control this pest.
 OP's Carbamates Pyrethroids/ Pyrethrins Other Chemistries Other Control Methods
Disulfoton: 24C: (WA,MI,OR,CA,AZ,NC) Fern stage, 3 applications % treated: PHI=120 days

REI=48 hrs



Chlorpyrifos: Harvest and fern

% treated:

PHI=24 hrs

REI=24 hrs



Malathion: Fern and spears % treated:

PHI=24 hrs

REI=12 hrs



Dimethoate: (registered for use in 1996 except for CA. Little known use at this time)

NONE NONE NONE Beauvaria bassiana

Burning or removing old fern at end of season

In MI predators and parasites help keep populations at low levels.

PIPELINE INFORMATION (leading to a Section 3 registration): Asparagus Aphid

A. Chemical Uses
IR-4 AND REGISTRANT DEVELOPMENT TOLERANCE PETITIONS SUBMITTED TO EPA TOLERANCES PROPOSED BY EPA



TOLERANCES APPROVED BY EPA SECTION 18's/ EUPs APPROVED BY EPA APPLICATIONS FOR REGISTRATION SUBMITTED TO EPA
PIRIMICARB (Pirimor) IR-4 Project

Field trials begun in 1997

Expected submittal to EPA - 1999

NONE

NONE NONE NONE NONE 

B. Nonchemical Uses:

Michigan currently experiences effective biocontrol of this pest in commercial fields and treatment is generally not required. One or more fungal pathogens are key biocontrol agents in Michigan but these are not effective in the dry western climates.

C. Notes:

** Loss of OP's critical to control of this pest, no alternatives available.
Disulfoton most commonly used, chlorpyrifos and malathion most likely replacements.
MI: no effective alternatives to disulfoton for control of European asparagus aphid.
WA: control primarily with disulfoton, is more effective, may applied by air or ground.
Chlorpyrifos limited to ground applications.
Rotation of chlorpyrifos and disulfoton used in resistance management, a loss of either will exacerbate resistance problems.
Tank mixes of chlorpyrifos/malathion or malathion/disulfoton are sometimes used.

PEST: Cutworms

Pest management practices used to control this pest.
 OP's Carbamates Pyrethroids/

Pyrethrins

Other

Chemistries

Other

Control Measures

Chlorpyrifos: Harvest and Postharvest % treated: PHI=24 hrs REI=24 hrs

Fonofos: Believe all uses were canceled by registrant.

Methomyl: Fern and spears % treated: PHI=24 hrs REI= 48 hrs


Carbaryl: Harvest and fern % treated: PHI=24 hrs

REI= 12 hrs

Permethrin: Fern and spears % treated:PHI=1day REI=24 hrs DAZA: dihydroazadirachtin: efficacy needs to be confirmed for this crop/pest commodity. Mechanical methods include weed removal, incorporation of field trash and crop residues from previous year.

PIPELINE INFORMATION (leading to a Section 3 registration): Cutworms


A. Chemical Uses
IR-4 AND REGISTRANT DEVELOPMENT TOLERANCE PETITIONS SUBMITTED TO EPA TOLERANCES PROPOSED BY EPA



TOLERANCES APPROVED BY EPA SECTION 18's/ EUPs APPROVED BY EPA APPLICATIONS FOR REGISTRATION SUBMITTED

TO EPA

NONE

NONE

NONE NONE NONE NONE

B. Nonchemical Uses:  NONE

C. Notes:

** If OP's lost, potential serious problem could develop.

Carbaryl and methomyl are not effective for control of cutworms; permethrin only effective alternative to chlorpyrifos and therefore most commonly used; reliance on permethrin may result in resistance problems.

All areas subject to various species of cutworms, sporadic infestations are common.

Mechanical methods do not provide significant levels of control.


Sources of Information

Asparagus Transition Strategy


Biologic and Economic Assessment of the Impact of Pesticide Use On Asparagus - USDA/NAPIAP

The Use of Organophosphate Insecticides in U.S. Crop Production - EPA/BEAD and NCFAP

Washington Minor Crops - Schreiber and Ritchie - USDA/NAPIAP

Insect Control Guide - Vol. 9, 1997

Charlie Edson - Michigan State - IPM Research

WHAT ELSE IS NEEDED:


Commodity Profile for Asparagus

Summary of Research Projects looking at alternative control measures:

Sources might include:

IPM projects, Universities, commodity groups, food processors, independent researchers, etc.


ASPARAGUS: PEST MANAGEMENT TRANSITION STRATEGY

SUMMARY


Major production areas: Total acres = 84,000
CA, WA, MI; also some in AZ, OR, NJ, WI
Major pests:
asparagus beetle, asparagus aphids, cutworms
Transition strategies by pest:

Asparagus beetle:
** Loss of OP's - no significant impact on production
Loss of OP's and Carbamates could lead to resistance problems with permethrin
Control of extreme importance in MI, high in WA
Carbaryl most widely used, permethrin most likely replacement
Crop hand harvested every 1-3 days, PHI's and REI's important when considering alternatives
Spinosad in IR-4 program, expected registration date 1999.
IPM work being conducted in MI, not commercially successful to date
Asparagus aphids:
** Loss of OP's - critical as no alternatives available
Disulfoton most widely used, chlorpyrifos and malathion most likely replacements
MI reports no effective alternatives to disulfoton for European asparagus aphid
If any one of the OP's lost, resistance development to remaining ones likely
Pirimicarb in IR-4, expected registration date 1999
IPM work being conducted in MI, not commercially successful to date
Cutworms:
** Loss of OP's - somewhat serious, may lead to resistance problems with permethrin
* Loss of OP's and carbamates - serious problems as only permethrin remaining
All production areas subject to sporadic infestations
Permethrin most widely used, chlorpyrifos most likely replacement
Without chlorpyrifos, heavy reliance on permethrin may result in accelerated resistance
Nothing in the pipeline

August 20, 1998




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updated February 25, 1999