Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.
|Site: Apples||Overall Confidence Rating: High|
|Background: A total of 549,370 acres are planted in apples in the United states. Organophosphate pesticides (OP) represent 68% of all pesticide useage on this crop with an average of 2.82 applications per year. Analysis of OP usage was conducted for the following five major apple regions: New England (CT, MA, ME, RI, NH, NJ, NY, VT) , North Central (MI and OH), Appalachian-Southern (DE, GA, MD, NC, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV), Western (AZ and CA), and Pacific North. (OR and WA). Insecticide use patterns and key pests vary both between and within regions. In the absence of effective controls, key pests can destroy 50-90% of the crop. Due to low damage threshold levels in apples, biological control is limited to indirect pests (non-fruit feeding) with little contribution against direct pests.|
|Organophosphate Pesticides||% Treated||# Applications||Rate (lb AI/A)||PHI (days)|
H= high confidence = data from several confirming sources; confirmed by personal experience
M = medium confidence = data from only a few sources; may be some conflicting or unconfirmed info.
L = low confidence = data from only one unconfirmed source
|Organophosphate Target Pests for Apple in New England Region (Primary pests controlled by the OP's)6, 9, 17, 18|
|Major||Bug (Tarnished Plant), Aphids (Rosy Apple, Apple, and Spirea), Apple Maggot, Plum Curculio|
|Moderate||Codling Moth, Leafroller (Obliquebanded and Redbanded))|
|Minor||Fruitworm (Green and Sparganothis), Sawfly (European Apple), Leafhopper (White Apple and Potato), Scale (San Jose), Mite (European Red), Leafminer (Spotted Tentiform)|
Major = 20+% of all OP usage on pest; Moderate = 5-20% of all OP usage on pest; Minor =<5% of all OP usage on pest
1. Proprietary EPA market share
2. U.S. Apple QUA+ - Washington. 1997.
3. U.S. Apple QUA+ - Virginia, West Virginia. 1997.
4. U.S. Apple QUA+ - Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. 1997.
5. U.S. Apple QUA+ - Pennsylvania. 1997.
6. U.S. Apple QUA+ - New England. 1997.
7. U.S. Apple QUA+ - Michigan. 1997.
8. U.S. Apple QUA+ - California. 1997.
9. QUA+ - New England Fruit Consultants.
10. QUA+ Michigan Apple Commission. 1997
11. QUA+ - Northwest Horticultural Council. 1997.
12. Orchard Pest Management; A Resource Book for the Pacific Northwest.1993. Good Fruit Grower, Yakima, WA.
13. Pacific Northwest 1998 Insect Control Handbook. 1998. Oregon State University.
14. 1997 Spray Bulletin for Commercial Tree Fruit Growers. Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland Cooperative Extension.
15. Pennsylvania Tree Fruit Production Guide. 1996-1997. College of Agricultural Science, Penn State University.
16. 1997 Fruit Spraying Calendar for Commercial Fruit Growers. 1997. Bulletin E-154. Michigan State University Extension.
17. Pest Management Recommendations for Commercial Tree Fruit Productio. 1997. Cornell University.
18. 1996-1997 New England Apple Pest Management Guide. Cooperative Extension (Universities. of Connecticut, New Hampshire, Maine, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Vermont)
19. Apple Pest Management Guidelines. 1996. UCPMG Publication 12. IPM Education and Publications, University of California, Davis.
20. Integrated Pest Management for Apples and Pears. 1991. Publication 3340. Unversity of California.
21. Label Use Information System (LUIS) Version 5.0, EPA.
22. The All-Crop, Quick Reference Insect Control Guide (1997), Meister Publishing Company
23. EPA Crop Profile QUA.
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updated July 24,1998