Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.
Region: New England (Including: CT, MA, ME, RI, NH, NJ, NY, VT)
|Pest2, 3, 4, 5, 8||Organophosphate1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8||Efficacy4, 5||Mkt1||Class||Alt. Pesticide List1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8||Efficacy4, 5||Mkt1||Constraints of Alternatives2, 3, 8|
| Apple Maggot
|azinphos-methyl||***||High||C||carbaryl||***||Lo||Pyrethroids are disruptive
to IPM practices and would result in mite explosions and resistant pest
Carbamates are also disruptive to established IPM programs. In addition, both carbaryl and methomyl have low resisdual activity against adults and would require 1-2 more applications than OP's.
|Plum Curculio (Major)||azinphos-methyl||***||High||C||carbaryl||**||Lo||Pyrethroids are disruptive
to IPM practices and would result in mite explosions. Esfenvalerate would
disrupt resistance management programs (i.e. acaricides would become useless
due to increased usage to control esfenvalerate-induced mite outbreaks.
Carbamates are also disruptive to established IPM programs. In addition, both carbaryl and methomyl are weak on curculio due to limited persistance against adults. In addition, carbaryl is a strong-moderate fruit thinner and use is limited to one application after fruit
|Leafroller (Oblique-banded and Red-banded) (Moderate)||azinphos-methyl||*- ***||High||C||carbaryl||*||Lo||OP's have relegated this
pest to secondary status. Loss of OP's could lead to resurgance as a major
Pyrethroids would disrupt natural or induced predators of mite and would disrupt resistance management programs, i.e., acarcides would rapidly become useless due to increased usage to control pyrethroid-induced mite outbreaks.
Bt adequate but expensive and rapidly inactivated by UV light. resistance.
|malathion||* - **||Lo||P||esfenvalerate||** - ***||Lo|
|Fruitworm (Green) (Minor)||azinphos-methyl||*||High||C||carbaryl||*||Lo||Esfenvalerate is very effective
but highly disruptive to IPM..
Endosulfan and Bt only moderately effective against high populations
|Sawfly (European Apple) (Minor)||azinphos-methyl||***||High||C||carbaryl||**||Lo||Pyrethroids would harm aphid and mite predators and cause explosion in mite populations. Continued use would lead to resistance. Carbamates are generally harsh on natural enemies of mite pests.|
|Leafhopper (White Apple and Potato) (Minor)||azinphos-methyl||*||High||C||carbaryl||***||Mod|
Apple production in the New England Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont) accounts for 17.9% of total acreage and 12.7 % of production for the US. OP usage represents 68.8% of all pesticide usage during the Pre-Bloom period in the New England Region.
New England fruit growers have since the 1970's readily adopted Integrated Pest Management pratices. Many growers have moved beyond the first stages of IPM to a more bio-intensive level, using more cultural and biological practices to limit insect and disease damage.
Plum Curculio is the most significant fruit insect pest in New England and the most difficult to control. No material other than OP's provide acceptable commercial control. Despite intensive study at UMASS (Amherst) for the past 20 years, no IPM strategies have been identified which are effective against Plum Curculio. Without an effective alternative control agent for Plum Curculio, commercial apple production in the Northeast would be impossible within 3-5 years. There are many other insecticides which can control Plum Curculio but over the years have demonstrated a negative long lasting impact on the predators and beneficial organisms which control later season apple pests. Using these insecticides, particularly Pyrethroids, would guarantee more late season chemical sprays to control insects that in most orchards have been controlled for years biologically.
Apple Maggot is easier to control than Plum Curculio, however, the overall situation is similar. Due to the behavior and life cycle of this pest, half rates of OP at extended intervals are very effective. Once Plum Cuculio season has passed in late May, 2-3 OP applications at 3 week intervals will provide control for the balance of the growing season into September. In addition, cultural practices such as border spraying and alternate row spraying can reduce the amount of chemical used for control. Work is now in progress to test traps (OP treated red sphere) for control effectiveness. Nevertheless, OP's are still necessary for commercial production with no effective alternatives available at this time.
Without new alternatives to OP's, progress made in implementing bio-intensive insect management would be lost with a net result of an increase in pesticide use.
1. Proprietary EPA market share information.
2. U.S. Apple QUA+ - New England. 1997.
3. New England Fruit Consultants.
4. Pest Management Recommendations for Commercial Tree Fruit Productio. 1997. Cornell University.
5. 1996-1997 New England Apple Pest Management Guide. Cooperative Extension (Univ. of Connecticut, New Hampshire, Maine, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Vermont)
6. The All-Crop, Quick Reference Insect Control Guide (1997), Meister Publishing Company.
7. Label Use Information System (LUIS) Version 5.0, EPA.
8. Communications with New England Extension Personnel and Apple Producers.
Pest Importance: Major = 20+% of all OP
usage on pest; Moderate = 5-20% of all OP usage on pest; Minor = <5% of
all OP usage on pest
Efficacy Rating: Excellent = Good = Fair = --- = Not rated for efficacy in state recs.
Market Share: High = 20+% OP usage on pest; Med = 5-20% of all usage on pest; Lo = <5% of all usage on pest; --- = not available for 1994-96.
Insecticides: C = Carbamates; P = Pyrethroids; CH = Chlorinated Hydrocarbons; IGR = Insect Growth Regulators; B = Biological; O = Other pesticide
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updated July 24, 1998