Pesticide Health Hazard Research Among Indian Tribes/Tribal Medicine Project (TMP)Year 2 Executive Summary and Final Report (PDF) (39 pp, 438 KB, about PDF)
Year 1 Executive Summary and Year 2 Considerations
This Executive Summary is written to describe the accomplishments of the EPA assistance Agreement (small grant) Number GX-828442-01-0 awarded to George Washington University (GWU) and compare what was done to the project goals we set for Year 1. The title of the grant was 'Pesticide Health Hazard Research Among Indian Tribes,' but it is referred to within EPA and at GWU as the 'Tribal Medicine Project' (TMP), and that is the name we will use throughout this report. When the project was funded, it was scheduled to run from August 1, 2000 to July 31, 2001, and GWU requested and was granted a no-cost extension until September 30, 2001 to complete work on this project. With the events of September 11, there has been a delay in completing all the laboratory reports and responses from the tribes, but the objectives and progress of the project are described in this Summary.
The Tribal Medicine Project (TMP) had one clear overriding objective: to collaborate with the nation's Indian Tribes to foster greater awareness of pesticide health hazards among Tribal members and among health care providers for Tribal communities. To attain that objective TMP had the two primary goals in Year 1: i) develop and deliver pesticide and health training to at least three tribes, and ii) conduct pesticide sampling surveys on tribal lands as a means to transfer relevant technology and demonstrate scientific procedures.
The initial goal was the responsibility of Dr. David Goldsmith (project PI), and he was assisted by Dr. Ana Maria Osorio, Public Health Service physician on detail to EPA in the Office of Pesticide Programs. The second goal of pesticide sampling was the joint responsibility of Mr. John Meagher, CIH (contractor from Intercet Ltd.) and Dr. Goldsmith. In all cases these activities required close cooperation with Tribal leaders, with OPP and Regional Offices and Staff of EPA, and with many other professionals. Among the other professionals were Tribal pesticide regulatory representatives, members of the Indian Health Service, Tribal Extension officials, pesticide contractors, growers who worked or leased Tribal lands, and other Tribal environmental health and safety professionals.
In this Executive Summary we will assess how well the goals were met, and areas needing additional effort in Year 2. We will also note the relevance of this work to the goals of national preparation for effective responses to threats imposed on American communities in the wake of September 11.Goals of Tribal Medicine Project Aug, 2000 to Sept, 2001
- In conjunction with EPA's OPP, the TMP began with a desire to expand the knowledge base related to pesticide health hazards and Tribal pesticide exposure information. Implied within that was an overall goal of expanding the Tribal interaction between EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs and individual tribes, Tribal organizations, members of TPPC, and faculty at GWU in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health.
- The goal of the first year of the program was to conduct three health
related training sessions on pesticide intoxication and preventive medicine
using experts from GWU (Dr. Goldsmith) and from EPA (Dr. Osorio) [see
Appendix A for details of the programs]. Specifically, our objectives
- provide training for health care providers on pesticide health hazards;
- make pesticide health professionals aware of EPA's publications in this field (particularly the 5th edition of 'Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings' and EPA's 'Protect Yourself from Pesticides' handbooks)
- provide information about the extensive resources related to pesticide health and safety including the National Pesticide Telecommunications Network, NIOSH-supported Agricultural Health and Safety Centers, the Pediatric Environmental Health Centers and the Association of Environmental and Occupational Health Clinics.
- via professional interactions, enable these TMP to interact with Tribal representatives on matters where pesticides were involved, including responses to emergency scenarios as well as advising Tribes on public health issues relevant to pesticide activities on Tribal lands.
- In collaboration with Tribal training classes, we sought three sampling surveys related to pesticide exposure in Tribal soil, vegetation, or agricultural settings. It is critical to note that the sampling demonstrations were for technology and skill transfer, and never intended for broad-spectrum pesticide exposure assessment. The sampling surveys were strongly relevant to the health training so that Tribal members could understand the usefulness of field measures to enforcement and to public health for Tribal members.
From prior interaction with Tribes in Region 9 during their tenure in California in 1980s and 1990s, Drs. Goldsmith and Osorio knew that critical to success between Indian Tribes and public health professionals was the necessity of personal trust and face-to-face interaction with Tribal leaders. Thus, initial and substantive efforts were made to develop cooperative and personal interactions between TMP team members, Tribal leaders, and EPA staff in OPP and in Regions 9 and 10. Regions 9 and 10 were logical areas to develop cooperative activities because size and influence of tribes in these regions, and because of the work by regional EPA staff to develop Tribal pesticide leadership. Furthermore, the Regional efforts meant there would be a ready audience for TMP health training and information. We also worked with and kept lines of communication open with members of TPPC and with organizations such as the InterTribal Council of Arizona (ITCA). Efforts were also made to consult on the phone with colleagues in the Indian Health Service-PHS and the State pesticide program offices in Arizona, California, and Washington. Appendix B contains a list of persons and Tribal affiliations, as well as other affiliations developed over the year of the project.
- Instead of doing three health training programs, TMP conducted five
training pesticide and health sessions (materials from these sessions
are included Appendix A)
- Yuma, AZ--Hosted by the Cocopah Tribe on March 20, 2001
- Phoenix, AZ--Hosted by ITCA on July 25, 2001
- Keams Canyon, AZ--Hosted by the Hopi Tribe on July 26, 2001
- Welpinit, WA---Hosted by the Spokane Tribe on July 31, 2001
- Lapwai, ID--Hosted by the Nez Perce Tribe on August 1, 2001
- All five programs provided continuing medical education (CME) and continuing nursing education (CNE) credits through GWU (or through AHEC in Yuma, AZ). Having CME is an incentive for both health professionals and nonhealth professionals because the training is of sufficiently high quality that CME units are offered for attendees. The class attendees also provided confidential reviews of speakers and topics, and as such, offer excellent feed back for both Tribal hosts and to course faculty.
- The TMP developed novel sampling demonstrations surveys focused on
Tribal lands and pesticide exposures. This was undertaken by John Meagher,
CIH, with assistance by Dr. Goldsmith. Below are the sampling surveys
- The Cocopah tribe--soil sampling for OPs and other insecticides on leased land used for lettuce/adjacent to recreation site, March 20, 2001
- The Navajo and Hopi tribes--combined soil and vegetation sampling in context of native plants versus invasive weeds, July 31 and August 1, 2001
- The Nez Perce Tribe--air sampling of particulates for pesticides, PAHs, and other inhalation hazards (September 9-10, 2001)
- The sampling program became an opportunity to introduce scientifically based sampling methods to Cocopah, Navajo, Hopi and Nez Perce pesticide staff and Tribal interns via Mr. Meagher's demonstrations.
- March 20, 2001, Yuma, AZ with Western Arizona Area Health Education Center, approximately 30 attendees including members and staff from the Cocopah and Quechan Tribes, Region 9 staff, local physicians, nurses, growers and Arizona State representatives, and ITCA staff
- July 25, 2001, ITCA, Phoenix, AZ, 20 attendees, including representatives from the Colorado River Indian Tribe, Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation, White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the Navajo Nation
- July 26, 2001 the Hopi Tribe in Keams Canyon, AZ, approximately 40 attendees, including representatives from Hopi and Navajo Nations, Bureau of Indian Affairs, AZ Dept Transportation, Hopi Tribal police, and Hopi Health Care Center. This program included a discussion of the pesticide concerns related to repatriation of Hopi artifacts and possible health risks to Tribal members, which is of particular interest to Mr. Micah Loma'omvaya, as well as to Drs. Goldsmith and Osorio.
- July 31, 2001, Welpinit, WA hosted by Spokane Tribe and Region 10 Pesticide Enforcement Circuit Rider, Mr. Eric Gjevre. There were 10 attendees, including representatives from the Coeur d'Alene, Spokane, and Kootenai Tribes.
- August 1, 2001, Lapwai, ID, Nez Perce Tribe a health training program was held in for approximately 25 attendees. Ms. Julie Simpson presented a description of the Nez Perce air quality monitoring effort and responses to concerns about Tribal members' asthma.
In total, there were about 125 attendees, 5 classes, and 12 tribes represented from three Western States, Arizona, Washington, and Idaho. All classes provided CME credits, and there were representatives from States, from both EPA Regions 9 and 10, State Agricultural Extension, growers, and from organizations representing farmworkers having interactions with Tribal authorities.
- March 20, 2001, Cocopah lands leased to a lettuce grower-soils and vegetation were surveyed for organophospate (OPs) insecticides. The Cocopah Tribe was concerned about three issues: possible drift to Tribal recreational lands, possible residues on vegetation used in Tribal burial rites, and adherence to EPA regulations.
- July 31, August 1, Hopi and Navajo nations--vegetation and soil were surveyed for herbicides. This program was initiated because both Hopi and Navajo Tribal members were concerned about the spraying of herbicides on lands jointly owned by Hopi and Navajo Tribes, AND being in places where Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) sprayed the rights of way in the same locations where Tribal elders gathered native plants. This survey was planned in conjunction with ADOT in locations where both Tribes shared control of the roads. Unfortunately, coordination between Tribal pesticide officials, sampling staff and ADOT did not occur, thus reducing sampling to roadsides known to have been sprayed months ago (without any herbicide to detect).
- September 10, 2001 Nez Perce--agricultural burning for herbicides and particulates. The Nez Perce community suffers from pediatric and adult asthma, and they wanted to know if particulates from field burning could be surveyed. Although it was unlikely that applied herbicide to fields where canola or wheat was grown might be detectable, TMP found respirable particulates from the burning of field residues (but no burned pesticide chemicals).
The TMP acted to synergize linkages that became unexpected benefits that arose during the course of the project. Some of these benefits are directly obvious and others less so, but they are relevant because they suggest steps that could be taken during future projects, that will return to both Indian Tribes and to EPA compounded values, consistent with the mission of OPP. These are listed below.
- There were opportunities for Tribal members to participate in training activities and in environmental sampling. For example, there were staff and summer interns affiliated with Cocopah, Navajo, Hopi, and Nez Perce Tribes who had the chance to observe Mr. Meagher's sampling methods in the field. In addition, the training programs had added relevance and value from the presentations by Mr. Eric Gjevre (Region 10 Pesticide Circuit Rider) from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, Mr. Mica Loma'omvaya from the Hopi, and by Ms. Julie Simpson of the Nez Perce. Dr. Goldsmith encouraged Mr. Gjevre to discuss the organization and process of his Circuit Rider program with Alaskan Tribes in Region 10 (and with other Regions outside of Region 10).
- The TMP benefited from the strong interaction with EPA staff in Regions 9 and 10, specifically with Dr. Goldsmith's getting to know and receiving the advice of Ms. Marcy Katzin from Region 9 office. Ms. Katzin worked with many of the Arizona Tribes and staff from ITCA, and her contacts added value to the training and sampling we undertook. In Region 10, Mr. Eric Gjevre, Tribal Circuit Rider from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe was a generous host to all of the TMP; Mr. Allan Welch from Region 10 advised Dr. Goldsmith on the project as well.
- The TMP staff was surprised by attendance at our training of representatives of States of Arizona and Washington, as well as enforcement staff from Region 9. Among those attendees were representatives of local growers and farmworkers at the Yuma, AZ session, and there seemed to be serious interest in our work from Border Health authorities. Clearly, the opportunity for medical education credits from GWU played a role in making the training attractive to a wide Tribal audience as was demonstrated by the attendance at TMP classes.
- In the light of September 11, 2001 attacks and the subsequent anthrax terrorism, we also believe the TMP offers the medical and first responder communities a rational method to prepare for Homeland Defense responses. Because many pesticides such as OPs act to intoxicate human targets in similar ways as nerve gas agents, TMP has offered training to Tribes that will enable them to react to threats of bioterrorism as well as to investigate outbreaks of clusters of illness (similar to the Hanta virus outbreak in the 1990s). For example, Dr. Osorio specifically provided lessons in identifying an outbreak of pesticide-related illnesses, skills to conduct medical monitoring or surveillance for pesticide intoxications, and skills in using external sources of pesticide toxicity (such as NIOSH Agricultural Health and Safety Center MDs, Poison Control staff, etc.). These are critical skills for physicians to have, and these clinical capabilities are among those for which Indian patients will want guidance when there are more terror attacks, or when medical professionals will be expected to react to them. As we have always stated in TMP classes, one of the primary skills we offered is to raise the index of suspicion about clusters of health problems--the identical capabilities needed for effective Homeland Defense against terrorism.
- Through the TMP, Drs. Goldsmith and Osorio became involved in a serious cultural and health issue related to pesticides (particularly arsenic and mercuric chloride) used on repatriated Indian artifacts. This collaboration between Tribal representatives and museum professionals was manifested in an April, 2001 conference "Contaminated Collections: Preservation, Access and Use" hosted by the National Park Service and the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections to which Drs. Goldsmith and Osorio contributed (see the peer reviewed publication from that conference in Appendix C). This conference and others demonstrated the importance of OPP expertise to health and safety debates related to repatriation of Indian cultural artifacts embodied in the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA managed by NPS) as well as the future of the Smithsonian National Museum of American Indians (NMAI) scheduled to open on the Washington Mall in 2003. There is planned a session devoted to Indian pesticide and health issues for the upcoming International Conference on Pesticide Exposure and Health to be held in July, 2002 in Bethesda, and Dr. Goldsmith has initiated a new topics class on museum health and safety at GWU, with a section focused on pesticides and medicine (Appendix D).
- Intercet and GWU have collected a data set including scientific articles addressing the areas of Indian tribes, pesticides and health issues (included in Appendix E)
The TMP has already had Tribal requests for collaboration in Year 2. The requests came from interactions with individuals and Tribes during the year of the project and others reflect current concerns about Tribes' pesticide health and safety issues
- From our interaction with members of TPPC, we have had a request from Mr. Art Ivanoff, Native Village of Unalakleet, Alaska, to conduct health training and undertake samples herbicide runoff in salmon and other native fish; a request by Ms. Deborah Ware, from the Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma for pesticide training and strong interest from Eileen Lopez from the Tohono O'odham Nation from Arizona for a pesticide and health class.
- From our interaction with the Navajo Nation a request from Mr. Herbert Holgate, for pesticide health and safety training.
- As a result of our work during this past year, a request from Ms. Julie Simpson, from the Nez Perce Tribe in Idaho to conduct more extensive sampling on agriculture burning and pesticides.
- From the environmental epidemiology literature, there is a clear need for food sampling studies among Chippewa Tribes with subsistence fish and wildlife consumption, including Tribes from the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes regions
- Because Dr. Osorio will not be available to TMP next year, we need to have plans to work with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Agricultural Health Centers for physicians with teaching skills and knowledge of pesticide health and safety to share training duties with Dr. Goldsmith. Clearly, the training will address methods to increase Homeland Defense skills relevant to both health care providers and to first responders. The need for this sort of training became clear in the wake of the confusion related to last fall's anthrax attacks via the US Postal Service. Our proposal for year 2 will include support for a project assistant on GWU's staff as well as the hiring of Tribal summer interns to aid the TMP, and for them to come to Washington DC for the International Pesticide Conference July 8-12. Efforts are underway to consult with Ms. Debbie Kovacs, sublead for Regional offices (from Region 8) on next year's planned activities.
- Because of our experiences in pesticide environmental sampling, TMP needs to have support for sampling activities, and that funding will enable Tribal members and/or Indian student interns to assist in conducting sampling during summer of 2002. This will permit expanded transfer of technology and increased awareness of pesticide sampling methods, and thus add value to the current EPA Tribal pesticide and health efforts. It is GWU's intention to submit a separate scientific proposal to the Agency that will address Tribal pesticide sampling procedures.
Appendices A through E are attached.Author:
David F. Goldsmith, MSPH, PhD
George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services,
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health
2300 K Street NW, Suite 201
Washington DC 20037
Tel: 202-994-2392; fax 202-994-0011
February 21, 2002
Quarterly report of activities on the small grant, "Pesticide Health Hazards Research among Indian Tribes" Project # X-82844201-0 (November 15, 2000)
This quarterly report covers the period from August 1, 2000 to October 31, 2000.
- Met with Dr. Osorio to review scope of work.
- Reviewed environmental health literature related to pesticides, Indian tribes, and health needs, including overall health status
- Assisted in the creation of "Tribal Medicine database" with Ms. Felix and Dr. Osorio, including Tribal contact information, EPA Regional staff, and IHS contacts.
- Attended International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE) conference in Buffalo, NY August 22, where Dr. Goldsmith convened a session, "Repatriatoion of Sacred Indian Artifacts Treated with Pesticides and other Chemical Preseveratives: Health Risks to Users and to Conservators."
- Attended and gave a paper at SFSU conference, "Contamination of Museum materials and Repatriation Process for California Indians" in San Francisco, September 29-30.
Second Quarterly Report of Activities on the Small Grant, "Pesticide Health Hazards Research among Indian Tribes" Project # X-82844201-0 (February 15, 2001)
This Quarterly report covers the period from November 1, 2000 to January 31, 2001.
- Sought publisher for ISEE program manuscripts.
- Conducted over the period November 9-16, 2000 face-to-face and telephone meetings in Arizona to develop options for spring outreach activities, with focus on Hopi and Navajo Nations, as well as tribes affiliated with Intertribal Council of Arizona (ITCA). ITCA Tribal attendees included representatives from Fort McDowell Yavapai, Colorado River Indian Tribes, Gila River Indian Community, Cocopah Indian Tribe, and Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community.
- Contacted other pesticide professionals and colleagues in Arizona, including Dr. Nancy Odegard (Univ AZ), Joseph Hiller (AZ Extension), Dr. Ernie Arviza (AZ Dept Health), and Ed Minch (Arizona Pesticide Enforcement Department).
- Briefed Region 9 EPA staff November 17, 2000, including Marcy Katzin. Chris Carre, and Pam Cooper on Tribal Medicine Project plans for Arizona.
- After the November meetings, met and discussed with Dr. Osorio, Mr. Meagher, and Tribal representatives plans for spring visits. We considered doing a sampling study small tribe with winter vegetables farming and larger ones because of the differences in pesticide activities, and populations at risk.
- Initiated plans for two programs in Arizona, one in spring in cooperation with Cocopah Tribe and second in summer combining Navajo and Hopi focusing on herbicide applications on roads with joint tribal control, in cooperation with BIA and Arizona Department of Transportation.
Third Quarterly Report of Activities on the Small Grant, "Pesticide Health Hazards Research among Indian Tribes" Project # X-82844201-0 (May 15, 2001)
This quarterly report covers the period from February 1, 2001 to April 30, 2001. Activities related to this project are listed below.
- On March 8, 2001, Drs. Goldsmith and Osorio met with TPPC in Crystal City, VA for a briefing for the panel on Tribal Medicine Program progress and plans for year 2.
- Planned and conducted health workshop and soil sampling for pesticide residues on Cocopah land March 19-21 in Yuma, AZ. Initial results from soil sampling showed no detectible organophosphate (OP) pesticide residues collected cooperatively by Cocopah and Mr. Meagher-Intercet (GWU contractor). Draft report is in preparation. The pesticides health and contamination workshop was held in conjunction with Western Arizona Area Health Education Center, and we had nearly 30 attendees; course evaluations will be transmitted in the next report.
- Begun negotiations with Hopi and Navajo Nations for a joint program to be held in early July in Northern Arizona with a focus on pesticides applied to shared Tribal roadways, with participation of Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The health workshop will emphasize the pesticides used on both Hopi and Navajo lands, with particular attention to training for emergency Department staff at the Hopi medical facility. Sampling will focus on roadside herbicides, and on grazing lands, keeping in mind the possible concerns about subsistence and Native gatherers of grasses, reeds, and plants.
- Begun planning for 1 day Intertribal Council of Arizona (ITCA)-sponsored health workshop in early July in Phoenix. This will be supplemented by an inservice training (assumed to be 1 day) for IHS staff in Phoenix.
- Drs Goldsmith and Osorio participated in a workshop April 6-9 in Shepardstown, WV on "Contaminated Collections: Preservation, Access and Use, Preservation of Native American Historical Natural History Collections Contaminated with Pesticide Residues." The session was hosted by Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, National Park Service, and Smithsonian's National Museum of American Indian.
- Briefed Region 10 EPA staff over the phone in April and then met in Spokane, WA on April 23 with representatives of Colville Confederated Tribes, Nez Perce (including Nimiipuu Health Clinic), Coeur d'Alene, and Kootenai Tribes from inland Pacific Northwest area. Selection of which Tribe would wish for pesticide sampling has not been decided, our goal is to have a health workshop and a sampling on Tribal lands in late July, 2001
- Met with EPA staff on April 26, including Ms. Parker, Ms. Hilgard, Ms. Rudic, Ms. Langston, Dr. Osorio, and Mr. Garvey to brief them on the entire project activities, both those completed, and those planned for the summer.
Fourth Quarterly Report of Activities on the Small Grant, "Pesticide Health Hazards Research among Indian Tribes" Project # X-82844201-0 (August 24, 2001)
This quarterly report covers the period from May 1, 2001 to July 31, 2001. Activities related to this project are listed below.
- Dr. Goldsmith successfully applied for continuing medical and nursing education accreditation from GWU Office of Continuing Medical Education for Tribal Medicine Project. Included in the agreement was standardized evaluations and offering of credit for non health care professionals who requested official letters of attendance and hours of credit. These letters of credit hours obtained are important for personnel files, as a demonstration to management of training on pesticides as job-relevant subjects, and as direct educational achievement noticed by an accredited school of medicine.
- Planned for 1 day Intertribal Council of Arizona (ITCA)-sponsored health workshop in late July in Phoenix with Ms. Elaine Wilson and her staff. Drs. Goldsmith and Osorio had a one-day training workshop July 25, 2001 focusing on the leading crops and pesticide chemicals. There were approximately 20 attendees, including representatives from the Colorado River Indian Tribe, Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation, White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the Navajo Nation.
- In collaboration with Mr. Micah Loma'omvaya, we planned and held a health training program sponsored by the Hopi Tribe in Keams Canyon, AZ July 26, 2001. It was characterized by sessions devoted to both pesticides used in normal Tribal activities such as agriculture and applications to schools, and also focused on pesticides used on repatriated Hopi religious artifacts. There were approximately 40 attendees, including representatives from Hopi and Navajo nations, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Arizona Department of Transportation, Hopi community police, and the Hopi Health Care Center.
- After negotiations with Hopi and Navajo Nations for a joint sampling program to be held in late July, Mr. John Meagher collaborated with Mr. Loma'omvaya and Mr. Herbert Holgate from the Navajo Nation EPA. They developed a vegetation sampling to test for herbicide residues applied to shared Tribal roadways, with participation of Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT). The sampling effort July 30 and 31 focused on roadside herbicides, and on grazing lands, with attention to concerns about subsistence and elder Native gatherers of grasses, reeds, and plants.
- Dr. Osorio briefed Region 9 staff on her work related to this portion of the Tribal Medicine Program on July 27 and July 30, 2001 when she was in San Francisco.
- On July 31, 2001 Drs Goldsmith and Osorio lead in a pesticides and health workshop that was arranged in collaboration with Mr. Rudy Peone from the Spokane Tribe and Mr. Eric Gjevre, Region 10 Pesticide Enforcement Circuit Rider. There were 10 attendees, including representatives from the Coeur d'Alene, Spokane, and Kootenai Tribes. The session took place in Wellpinit, WA.
- On August 1, 2001, thanks to organizing efforts by Mr. Gjevre and Ms. Julie Simpson from the Nez Perce Tribe a successful health training program was held in Lapwai, ID for approximately 25 attendees. Ms. Simpson presented a description of the Nez Perce air quality monitoring effort and responses to concerns about Tribal members' asthma.
- While in Lapwai, we developed plans for a sampling program in September, 2001 to determine herbicide/pesticide role in the production of irritating air pollution associated with burned agricultural stubble on Tribal and adjoining lands.
- Drs. Goldsmith and Osorio submitted plans for an international pesticides and health conference to be held in Bethesda, MD in midDecember. It is being hosted by the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health (SOEH); GWU is planned to be a cosponsor. Because there was sufficient interest, there will be one session devoted to indigenous communities and pesticide risks.
- The report for the sampling on the Cocopah tribe lands is being transmitted to EPA and to Cocopah Tribe in September.
- Dr. Goldsmith successfully applied for 2-month no-cost extension of the current agreement, necessitated by late season sampling of agricultural stubble burns in Idaho (mostly cannola, grass seed, and wheat).
- Discussions were held with Dr. Osorio, Mr. Meagher, Ms. Parker, Ms. Langton, and Dr. Goldsmith for summary of Year 1 session late in September.