Updated RED Fact Sheet: 1, 3-Dichloropropene (1, 3-D)
All pesticides sold or distributed in the United States must be registered by EPA, based on scientific studies showing that they can be used without posing unreasonable risks to people or the environment. Because of advances in scientific knowledge, the law requires that pesticides first registered before November 1, 1984, be reregistered to ensure that they meet today's more stringent standards.
In evaluating pesticides for reregistration, EPA obtains and reviews a complete set of studies from pesticide producers that describe the human health and environmental effects of each pesticide. The Agency develops any mitigation measures or regulatory controls needed to effectively reduce each pesticide's risks. EPA then reregisters pesticides that meet current human health and safety standards and can be used without posing unreasonable risks to human health and the environment.
When a pesticide is eligible for reregistration, EPA explains the basis for its decision in a Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) document.The 1, 3-D RED was completed in 1998. However, for comparative purposes revised risk assessments for 1, 3-D were completed concurrently with the other fumigants (methyl bromide, chloropicrin, metam sodium/metam potassium, and dazomet) as these fumigants went through the reregistration process. The Agency evaluated these soil fumigants at the same time to ensure that human health risk assessment approaches are consistent, and that risk tradeoffs and economic outcomes were considered appropriately in reaching risk management decisions. This review is part of EPA’s program to ensure that all pesticides meet current health and safety standards.
The following is the mitigation required from the 1998 1, 3-D RED and previous negotiations:
- Lowered maximum application rates (rate decrease depends on the crop)
- Deletion of selected use sites
- Closed loading requirements
- Technology to minimize spillage during the application
- Improved product stewardship materials
- Additional PPE: coveralls over short-sleeved shirt and short pants, chemical resistant gloves and footwear, chemical resistant apron (for direct handlers), respirator requirements for all handlers except those in certain closed cabs
- Restricted entry interval increased to 5 days
- Soil moisture and sealing requirements
- Modified application techniques
- 300 foot buffer from occupied structures
- Loading requirements
- Ground water advisory
- Prohibition of use in northern tier states, ND, SD, WI, MN, NY, ME, NH, VT, MA, UT, MT with shallow groundwater and vulnerable soils
- 100 foot buffer between drinking water wells and treated fields
- Prohibition of use in areas overlaying karst geology
Since the 1998 RED, the following changes have been made:
- The prohibition of use in areas overlying karst geology was changed to prohibit application within 100 feet of karst topographical features.
- The 300 foot buffer from occupied structures was changed to 100 feet from occupied structures for some products.
- A tolerance was established in/on grape at 0.018 ppm when 1, 3-D is applied via drip irrigation in established vineyards.
The Agency believes that mitigation required as part of the 1998 RED and the subsequent changes address the risks of concern for 1, 3-D. Although no new risks of concern have been identified for 1, 3-D, due to the complex nature of soil fumigation, the Agency believes that mitigation currently being required for the other fumigants in the group, for example fumigant management plans, handler training, emergency preparedness and response, may also be appropriate for 1, 3-D and will consider whether to add these measures to 1, 3-D products.
EPA plans to reevaluate the soil fumigants as a group again beginning in 2013 as part of the registration review program. EPA may also consider additional mitigation measures during other regulatory reviews of 1, 3-D.
The RED requirements for the other soil fumigants are not currently applicable to products that contain 1, 3-D only. However for 1, 3-D products that contain chloropicrin, the labels must be revised to reflect the mitigation required in the chloropicrin RED.
For More Information
An electronic version of the 1, 3-D RED is available at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/telone/. Supporting documents are also available in the 1, 3-D docket, EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0124 at http://www.regulations.gov. For more information about EPA’s pesticide reregistration program, please contact the Special Review and Reregistration Division (7508P), Office of Pesticide Programs, US EPA, Washington, DC 20460, telephone 703-308-8000.