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Chapter 3: Hazard Summary

Table of Contents for Chapter 3
    • 3.2.1 Human Health Hazard
    • 3.2.2 Environmental Hazard
    • 3.3.1 Drycleaning Technologies
    • 3.3.2 Machine Wetcleaning Technology

Download the PDF version of Chapter 3 in its entirety [78K].

[PDF] PLEASE NOTE: Some of the documents mentioned in this Section are in Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF). To view or print them you will need to have the Adobe Acrobat Reader program installed on your computer. The Reader can be downloaded and used with no charge; check here for more information on the Adobe Acrobat Reader.


This chapter describes possible health, environmental, and safety concerns related to clothes cleaning processes and the chemicals used therein. It highlights some of the issues related to these chemicals, but it is not intended to represent the full range of hazards that could be associated with clothes cleaning technologies.

The chapter provides data on each of the technologies and the individual chemicals used within those technologies as defined by this Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA). For each technology and/or chemical, the chapter presents summaries of human health and toxicological data, including exposure routes; toxicity endpoints (e.g., carcinogenicity, developmental toxicity, and neurologic effects); and hazard measures. More detailed discussions of the studies are presented in Appendix C. Environmental effects data on acute and chronic aquatic toxicity levels for fish, invertebrates, and algae and environmental hazard rankings for individual chemicals are included. The chapter also describes safety hazards that may be associated with the various technologies or chemicals.

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