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Chapter 3: Hazard Summary

Table of Contents for Chapter 3
  • SUMMARY
  • 3.1  INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2  OVERALL SUMMARY
    • 3.2.1 Human Health Hazard
    • 3.2.2 Environmental Hazard
  • 3.3  HAZARD SUMMARIES BY TECHNOLOGY
    • 3.3.1 Drycleaning Technologies
    • 3.3.2 Machine Wetcleaning Technology
  • REFERENCES

Download the PDF version of Chapter 3 in its entirety [78K].

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SUMMARY

This chapter describes possible health, environmental, and safety concerns related to clothes cleaning processes and the chemicals used therein. It highlights some of the issues related to these chemicals, but it is not intended to represent the full range of hazards that could be associated with clothes cleaning technologies.

The chapter provides data on each of the technologies and the individual chemicals used within those technologies as defined by this Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA). For each technology and/or chemical, the chapter presents summaries of human health and toxicological data, including exposure routes; toxicity endpoints (e.g., carcinogenicity, developmental toxicity, and neurologic effects); and hazard measures. More detailed discussions of the studies are presented in Appendix C. Environmental effects data on acute and chronic aquatic toxicity levels for fish, invertebrates, and algae and environmental hazard rankings for individual chemicals are included. The chapter also describes safety hazards that may be associated with the various technologies or chemicals.

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