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Chapter 4: Release and Exposure

Table of Contents for Chapter 4
  • SUMMARY
  • 4.1  INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2  ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE ASSESSMENT
    • 4.2.1 Drycleaning Technologies
    • 4.2.2 Machine Wetcleaning Release Assessment
  • 4.3  EXPOSURE OVERVIEW
    • 4.3.1 Background and Definitions
    • 4.3.2 Exposure Descriptors
    • 4.3.3 Exposure Comparisons
  • 4.4  EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS
    • 4.4.1 Drycleaning Technologies: Perchloroethylene Processes
    • 4.4.2 Drycleaning: Hydrocarbon Solvents
    • 4.4.3 Machine Wetcleaning Process
  • REFERENCES

Download the PDF version of Chapter 4 in its entirety [186K].

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SUMMARY

This chapter addresses the releases to the environment and human and environmental exposures to chemicals that may result from dry and machine wetcleaning operations. Section 4.1 contains an introduction to the chapter. Section 4.2 contains information on environmental releases of chemicals used in various fabricare processes. In this section, potential releases to air, water, and for off-site recovery or disposal are discussed for each applicable chemical. These estimates are used as inputs for general population exposure estimation where monitoring data do not exist. Section 4.3 provides an overview of exposure assessment principles, including definitions of the types of estimated exposures. Section 4.4 examines potential exposures. Both worker exposure and general population (non-worker) exposure are assessed. Both dermal (skin) and inhalation exposure are assessed for workers, when applicable. Inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure are presented where applicable for the general population. Additionally, surface water concentration estimates are made, when possible, to support assessment of risks to aquatic organisms. The methodologies and models used for estimating releases and exposures are described along with the associated assumptions and uncertainties. Additional information related to this chapter is provided in Appendix E.

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