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Chapter 5: Risk

Table of Contents for Chapter 5
  • SUMMARY
  • 5.1  RISK CHARACTERIZATION -- INTRODUCTION
    • 5.1.1 Scope of the CTSA Risk Assessments
    • 5.1.2 Background Information on Human Risk Assessment Methodology
  • 5.2  DRYCLEANING USING PERCHLOROETHYLENE (PCE)
    • 5.2.1 Human Health
    • 5.2.2 Human Health Risks
    • 5.2.3 Occupational Risks -- Drycleaning Workers
    • 5.2.4 Risks to Residents Co-Located with Drycleaning Establishments
    • 5.2.5 General Population Risks
    • 5.2.6 Special Sub-Populations
    • 5.2.7 Environmental Risk
    • 5.2.8 Human and Environmental Risks -- Overall Summary and Conclusions
  • 5.3  DRYCLEANING USING HYDROCARBON (HC) SOLVENTS
    • 5.3.1 Human Health
    • 5.3.2 Human Health Risks
    • 5.3.3 Occupational Risks -- Drycleaning Workers
    • 5.3.4 General Population Risks -- Residents Co-Located with Drycleaning Establishments
    • 5.3.5 General Population Risks
    • 5.3.6 Special Sub-Populations
    • 5.3.7 Environmental Risk -- Summary and Conclusions
  • 5.4  MACHINE WETCLEANING PROCESS
    • 5.4.1 Human Health
    • 5.4.2 Human Health Risks
    • 5.4.3 Occupational Risks -- Wetcleaning Workers
    • 5.4.4 General Population Risks
    • 5.4.5 Environmental Risk -- Summary and Conclusions
  • REFERENCES

Download the PDF version of Chapter 5 in its entirety [147K].

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SUMMARY

This chapter integrates the hazard, dose-response, and exposure assessments for several major commercial clothes cleaning processes into a risk assessment for each of the cleaning processes and characterizes the risks as to key issues, major assumptions, and uncertainties. Section 5.1 provides definitions of terms common to risk assessment and descriptions of methodologies. Section 5.2 presents estimates of potential risks to workers, co-located residents (i.e., residents in buildings with drycleaning facilities), and the general population, as well as environmental risks from perchloroethylene (PCE). Section 5.3 estimates potential risks from drycleaning operations using hydrocarbon (HC) technology. Section 5.4 evaluates the risks associated with machine wetcleaning.

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