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Chapter 8: Selected Federal Regulations

Table of Contents for Chapter 8
  • SUMMARY
  • 8.1  CLEAN AIR ACT
    • 8.1.1 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.1.2 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.1.3 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.2  CLEAN WATER ACT
    • 8.2.1 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Program
    • 8.2.2 Wastewater Discharges to Publicly-owned Treatment Works
    • 8.2.3 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.2.4 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.2.5 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.3  SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT - UNDERGROUND INJECTION
    • 8.3.1 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.3.2 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.3.3 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.4  RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT
    • 8.4.1 Classification of Hazardous Wastes
    • 8.4.2 Classification of Hazardous Waste Generators
    • 8.4.3 Underground Storage Tanks
    • 8.4.4 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.4.5 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.4.6 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.5  COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION AND LIABILITY ACT
    • 8.5.1 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.5.2 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.5.3 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.6  OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT
    • 8.6.1 Perchloroethylene Cleaning
    • 8.6.2 Hydrocarbon Solvent Cleaning
    • 8.6.3 Machine Wetcleaning
  • 8.7 CARE LABELING RULE
  • 8.8 OTHER APPLICABLE REGULATIONS
  • REFERENCES

Download the PDF version of Chapter 8 in its entirety [121K].

[PDF] PLEASE NOTE: Some of the documents mentioned in this Section are in Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF). To view or print them you will need to have the Adobe Acrobat Reader program installed on your computer. The Reader can be downloaded and used with no charge; check here for more information on the Adobe Acrobat Reader.

SUMMARY

This chapter describes some federal regulations that may affect the various fabricare alternatives analyzed in this document. Regulatory requirements are an important aspect of comparing alternative fabricare processes because of their effect on daily and long-term costs, equipment requirements, cleaning processes, overhead, owner/operator liability, and business compliance time (Blackler et al., 1995).

Professional clothes cleaners may be affected by the requirements of the following federal air, water, waste management, and occupational health and safety regulations: (1) Clean Air Act (CAA); (2) Clean Water Act (CWA); (3) Safe Drinking Water Act - Underground Injection Control Regulations (SDWA-UIC); (4) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (5) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA); (6) Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act; and (7) the Federal Trade Commission's Care Labeling Rule.

Following a summary of each of these federal regulations, individual sections discuss how each statute applies to the individual fabricare processes. The final section of the chapter provides examples of state and local regulations, as well as consensus standards of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) that apply to the fabricare industry. Exhibit 8-1 summarizes the federal regulations that apply to the various fabricare technologies covered in this Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA).

Exhibit 8-1. Summary of Regulations Related to Fabricare Technologiesa
Fabricare Option

CAA

CWA

RCRA

CERCLA

OSH

Care Labeling Rule

Other

PCE cleaning

§

§

§

§

§

§

NFPA-32

HC cleaning

§

§

§

§

§

§

NFPA-32

Machine Wetcleaning

NA

§

NA

NA

NA

§

NA

§ Indicates that a technology is regulated specifically in statute.

NA Indicates that although the statutes apply to the technology there are no specific regulatory requirements.

a The list of regulations covered in this chapter should not be considered exhaustive and may not cover all regulated aspects of the fabricare industry.


In some cases implementation of federal mandates may be delegated to a state agency. Such programs must be at least as stringent as the applicable federal regulation. However, state and local authorities may impose requirements that are more stringent than those addressed by federal law. There may also be additional state or local requirements that have no federal counterpart.

Owners and operators of drycleaning facilities are encouraged to consult USEPA's Plain English Guide for Perc Drycleaners: A Step by Step Approach to Understanding Federal Environmental Regulations [EPA 305-B-96-002 (USEPA, 1996a)] and Multimedia Inspection Guidance for Drycleaning Facilities [EPA 305-B-96-001(USEPA, 1996c)] for more detailed discussions of perchloroethylene (PCE) drycleaning regulations.

The discussion in this document is intended for informational purposes only. Stakeholders are encouraged to examine all potentially applicable federal, state, and local regulatory requirements that apply to professional fabricare operations in their jurisdiction. Although spotting agents, fabric finishes, and water softeners are not covered in this regulatory assessment, they should not necessarily be overlooked for their impact on a fabricare operation's regulatory compliance activities.

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