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Appendix D

Peer Review Reference List

Cleaner Technologies
Substitutes Assessment for Fabricare:
Including Wet and Drycleaning Technologies

PEER REVIEW REFERENCE LIST

July 1997


DO NOT CITE, QUOTE, DISTRIBUTE OR RELEASE

TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW: Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA) for Fabricare: Including Dry and Wet Cleaning Technologies

CTSA REFERENCES

1. Abt. 1994. Dry cleaning industry. Use cluster analysis. Final report. Prepared for the U.S. EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics under Contract No. 68-D2-0175. Abt Associates. April 5.

2. ACGIH. 1986. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of threshold limit values. ACGIH, Committee on Threshold Limit Values. Cincinnati, OH.

3. ACGIH. 1994. American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists. 1994-1995 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices, ACGIH.

4. Adamson, K. 1996a. Personal communication between Ken Adamson, Langley-Parisan Cleaners, and Jonathan Greene, Abt Associates Inc. November 25.

5. Adamson, K. 1996b. The status of wet cleaning in Canada: Exploring the boundaries of wet cleaning. Presented at Conf. on Global Experience and New Developments in Wet Cleaning Technology. Schloss Hohenstein, Boennigheim, June. p. 15-20.

6. Adamson, K. 1997. Personal communication between Ken Adamson and Alice Tome, Abt Associates Inc. January.

7. Ahlborg Jr., G. 1990. Pregnancy outcome among women working in laundries and dry-cleaning shops using tetrachloroethylene. Am J Ind Med 17:567-575. [As cited in ATSDR (1993).]

8. AIHA. 1990. Perchloroethylene exposure assessment among dry cleaning workers. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 51. October.

9. Alden, C.L. 1986. A review of unique male rat hydrocarbon nephropathy. Toxicol Pathol 14:109-111. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

10. Amato. 1994. Personal communication between sales representative of Amato Industries and Michael Müller of Abt Associates Inc.

11. Amoore, J.E., and E. Hautala. 1983. Odor as an aid to chemical safety: odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. J of Appld Toxicol 3:272-90.

12. Anderson, C., K. Sundberg, and O. Groth. 1986. Animal model for assessment of skin irritancy. Contact Dermatitis 15:143-151. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

13. Andersson, H.F., J.A. Dahlberg, and R. Wettstrom. 1975. On the formation of phosgene and trichloroacetyl chloride in the nonsensitized photooxidation of perchloroethylene in air. Acta Chem. Scand. A. 29:473-474. [As cited in Versar (1987).]

14. ANSI. 1982. American National StandardSafety Levels with Respect to Human Expousre to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, 300 kHz to 100 GHz. American National Standards Institute, NY. ANSI C95.1-1982. [As cited in Elder (1994).]

15. Anttila, A., E. Pukkala, M. Sallmén, S. Hernberg, and K. Hemminki. 1995. Cancer incidence among Finnish workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons. J Occup Med. In Press. [As cited in IARC (1995).]

16. Aoyama, Y. 1994. Personal communication between Y. Aoyama, Tokyo Sensen Kikai Seisakusho Co., and Cassandra De Young, Abt Associates Inc. December 29.

17. API. 1977. American Petroleum Institute. Teratology study in rats. Stoddard solvent final report. Washington, DC. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

18. API. 1982. American Petroleum Institute. Mutagenicity study of thirteen petroleum fractions. Project no. U-150-14 (EA-1). Washington, DC. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

19. API. 1987. American Petroleum Institute. Mutagenicity of API 8501, Stoddard solvent (CAS 8052-41-3) in a mouse lymphoma mutation assay. Final report. Washington, DC. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

20. Arlien-Söborg, P., P. Bruhn, C. Gyldensted, et al. 1979. Chronic painters' syndrome: Chronic toxic encephalopathy in house painters. Acta Neurol Scand 60:149-156. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

21. Aschengrau, A., D. Ozonoff, C. Paulu, et al. 1993. Cancer risk and tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Massachusetts. Arch Env Hlth 48:284-292.

22. Ashland. 1989. Ashland Chemical Company. Material safety data sheet for Stoddard (petroleum) solvent. May.

23. Ashland. 1992. Ashland Chemical Company. Material safety data sheet for Stoddard (petroleum) solvent. March.

24. ATSDR. 1993. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for tetrachloroethylene. USDHHS, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service. Atlanta, GA.

25. ATSDR. 1995. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for Stoddard solvent. USDHHS, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service. Atlanta, GA.

26. AWWA. 1995. American Water Works Association. Personal communication with Alice Tome, Abt Associates Inc. November 1.

27. BAAQMD. 1993. Bay Area Air Quality Management District. An Investigative Survey of Perchloroethylene in Residential Areas above Dry Cleaners in San Francisco.

28. Bagnell, P.C., and H.C. Ellenberger. 1977. Obstructive jaundice due to a chlorinated hydrocarbon in breast milk. J Can Med Assoc 117:1047-1048. [As cited in USEPA (1985).]

29. Bailey, W. Undated. Personal communication between W. Bailey, Blue Plains Treatment Plant, and Mary Katherine Powers, USEPA/OPPT/EETD.

30. Baker, S. 1996. Personal communication between Scott Baker, Hill Equipment Company, and Jonathan Greene, Abt Associates Inc. December.

31. Barnes and Dourson. 1988. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 8:471 - 486.

32. Becknell, C. 1994. Personal communications between Cary Becknell, Safety Kleen, and Cassandra De Young, Abt Associates Inc. August 22 and September 1.

33. Belluscio, J. 1996. Personal communications between Jack Belluscio, Global Technologies, LLC, and Joseph Breen, USEPA, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. October 30.

34. Blackler, C., R. Denbow, W. Levine, and K. Nemsick. 1995. A Comparative Analysis of PCE Dry Cleaning and an Alternative Wet Cleaning Process. National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Ann Arbor, MI.

35. Blair, A., P. Decoutle, and D. Graumen. 1979. Causes of death among leaundry and dry-cleaning workers. Am. J. Public Health 69(5):508-511.

36. BLS. 1996a. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Downloaded from the BLS Information Bulletin Composite File of the Producer Price Index for Capital Equipment and Chemicals and Allied Products. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Prices and Consumer Living Conditions.

37. BLS. 1996b. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Downloaded from the BLS Information Bulletin Composite File of the Producer Price Index for Energy. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Prices and Consumer Living Conditions.

38. BLS. 1997. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Downloaded from the BLS Information Bulletin Composite File of the Producer Price Index for Capital Equipment and Chemicals and Allied Products. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Prices and Consumer Living Conditions.

39. Boethling, R.S. 1993. Structure activity relationships for evaluation of biodegradability in the EPA's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment, 2nd Volume, ASTM STP 1216. J.W. Gorsuch, F.J. Dwyer, C.G. Ingersoll, and T.W. La Point, Eds. American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia, PA. pp. 540-554.

40. Bosco, M.G., I. Figa-Talamanca, and S. Salerno. 1987. Health and reproductive status of female workers in dry cleaning shops. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 52:295-301. [As cited in ATSDR (1993).]

41. Braunstein, L.E. 1940. Subacute yellow atrophy of the liver due to solvent. J Am Med Assoc 114:136-138.

42. Bruce, B. 1994. Personal communication between Benghkt Bruce, Unimac, and Sue Hollenbeck, SAIC. June.

43. Bruce, B. 1995. Personal communications between Benghkt Bruce, Unimac, and Cassandra De Young, Abt Associates Inc. January.

44. Buben Jr., O'Flaherty J. 1985. Delineation of the role of metabolism in the hepatotoxicity of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene: A dose-effect study. Toxicol Appl Pharmcol 78:105-122. [As cited in IRIS (1993).]

45. Busch RH, McDonald KE, Briant JK, Morris JE, Braham TM. 1983. Pathologic effects in rodents exposed to sodium combustion products. Environ Res 31:138-147.

46. Caled. 1995. Comments submitted by Caled on CTSA Phase II drafts sent for stakeholder comments.

47. Cameli, N., G. Tosti, N. Venturo, and A. Tosti. 1991. Eyelid dermatitis due to cocamidopropyl betaine in a hard contact lens solution. Contact Dermatitis 25:261-262.

48. Cannon, B. 1994. Personal communications between Barry Cannon, Boewe Passat/Permac, and Cassandra De Young, Abt Associates Inc. August 11 and 16.

49. Carpenter, C.P. 1937. The chronic toxicity of tetrachloroethylene. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 19:323-336. [As cited in ATSDR (1993).]

50. Carpenter, C.P., E.R. Kinkead, D.L. Geary Jr., et al. 1975a. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity studies: I. Methodology. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 32:246-262. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

51. Carpenter, C.P., E.R. Kinkead, D.L. Geary Jr., et al. 1975b. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity studies: III. Animal and human response to vapors of Stoddard solvent. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 32:282-297. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

52. CAS. 1993. Chemical Abstracts Service. On-line search of Registry File. August.

53. CCRIS. 1995. Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Built and maintained by the National Cancer Institute; reviewed by expert consultants and qualified contractors.

54. CEC. 1992. Center for Emissions Control. Dry cleaning: An assessment of emission control options. September.

55. CEPA. 1993. California Environmental Protection Agency. Air Resources Board. Proposed airborne toxic control measure and proposed environmental training program for perchloroethylene dry cleaning operations. Staff report. August.

56. Chao, S. 1994. Personal communication between Sid Chao, Hughes Corporation, and Alice Tome, Abt Associates Inc. December.

57. Cheverria, D., R.F. White, and C. Sampaio. 1995. A behavioral evaluation of PCE exposure in patients and dry cleaners: a possible relationship between clinical and preclinical effects. JOEM 37(6):667-680.

58. CIR. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. 1983. Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Laureth Sulfate and Ammonium Laureth Sulfate. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 2(5):1-34

59. CIR. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. 1984. Final report on the safety assessment of Polysorbates 20, 21, 40, 60, 61, 65, 80, 81, and 85. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 3(5):1-82.

60. CIR. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. 1986. Final report on the safety assessment of hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxyproplycellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxyproplymethylcellulose, and cellulose gum. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 5(3):1-59. Hazardous Substance Database (HSDB). 1994.

61. CIR. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. 1987. Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Sesquicarbonate, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Sodium Carbonate. J Am Coll Toxicol 6(1):121-138.

62. CIR. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. 1993. CIR Cosmetic Ingredient Review: 1993 Annual Report. Washington, DC.

63. Clark, B., J.G. Henry, and D. Mackay. 1995. Fugacity analysis and model of organic chemical fate in a sewage treatment plant. Environ Sci Technol 29:1488-1494.

64. Clayton, G.D., and F.E. Clayton. Eds. 1982. Acetic Acid in Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology; Third revised edition: Volume 2C Toxicology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 3059-3061, 4386-4389, 4358-4359, 4909-4911, 4946-4948.

65. Clements, R.G. (Ed.). 1988. Estimating toxicity of industrial chemicals to aquatic organisms using structure activity relationships. EPA-560/6-88-001. Environmental Effects Branch, Health and Environmental Review Division (7403), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC. PB89-117592. National Technical Information Services (NTIS), U.S. Department of Commerce. Springfield, VA.

66. Clements, R.G., J.V. Nabholz, D.W. Johnson, and M. Zeeman. 1993a. The use and application of QSAR's in the Office of Toxic Substances for ecological hazard assessment of new chemicals. Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment. ASTM STP 1179. W.G. Landis, J.S. Hughes, and M.A. Lewis, Eds. American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia, PA. pp. 56-64.

67. Clements, R.G., J.V. Nabholz, D.W. Johnson, and M. Zeeman. 1993b. The use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) as screening tools in environmental assessment. Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment. 2nd Volume. ASTM STP 1216. J.W. Gorsuch, J.F. Dwyer, C.G. Ingersoll, and T.W. La Point, Eds. American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia, PA. pp. 555-570.

68. CNT. 1996. Center for Neighborhood Technology. Alternative clothes cleaning demonstration shop. Final report. Chicago, IL. (Chapter 2)

69. CNT. 1996. Center for Neighborhood Technology. Wetcleaning machines: a report by the Center for Neighborhood Technology obtained from the World Wide Web site http://www.cnt.org. (Chapter 1)

70. Coca, J., and R. Diaz. 1980. Extraction of furfural from aqueous solutions with chlorinated hydrocarbons. J of Chem Engin Data 25:80-83.

71. Coler, H.R., and H.R. Rossmiller. 1953. Tetrachloroethylene exposure in a small industry. Ind Hyg Occupa Med 8:227. [As cited in USEPA (1985).]

72. Collins, J. 1995. Personal communication between Jim Collins, Safety Kleen, and Cassandra De Young, Abt Associates Inc. January 13.

73. Conaway, C.C., C.A. Schreiner, and S.T. Cragg. 1984. Mutagenicity evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons. In: Advances in Modern Environmental Technology. Vol. 6: Applied toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbons. H.N. MacFarland, C.E. Holdsworth, J.A. MacGregor, et al., Eds. Princeton Scientific Publishers, Inc. Princeton, NJ. pp. 89-107. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

74. Consumers Union. 1995. Perchloroethylene in the air in apartments above New York City dry cleaners: A special report from Consumers Union.

75. CRC. 1975. Chemical Rubber Publishing Company. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 56th Edition. CRC Press. Cleveland, OH.

76. CRC. 1984. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 65th ed. Weast, Ed. CRC Press.

77. CRWQCB. 1991. California Regional Water Quality Control Board. Cleanup and abatement order for PCE dischargers in Turlock. Staff report. CRWQCB, Central Valley Region. Summer.

78. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1976. Submission of unpublished data. Primary skin irritation study on 20 percent aqueous Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-82.

79. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1977a. Submission of unpublished data. Acute oral toxicity of a bubble bath containing 6 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-47.

80. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1977b. Submission of unpublished data. Primary skin irritation study on 10 percent aqueous Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-56.

81. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1977c. Submission of unpublished data. Human primary skin irritation study on a bubble bath containing 6 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-51.

82. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1977d. Submission of unpublished data. Repeat insult patch test on a medicated liquid cleanser containing 5 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-63.

83. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1978a. Submission of unpublished data. Acute oral toxicity of 25 percent Lauramide DEA in corn oil. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-53.

84. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1978b. Submission of unpublished data. Acute dermal toxicity of 50 percent Lauramide DEA in corn oil. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-54.

85. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1979a. Submission of unpublished data. Acute oral toxicity of a noncoloring shampoo containing 8.0 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-72.

86. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1979b. Submission of unpublished data. Acute oral toxicity of a noncoloring shampoo containing 8.0 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-73.

87. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1979c. Submission of unpublished data. Acute oral toxicity of a noncoloring shampoo containing 8.0 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-74.

88. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1979d. Submission of unpublished data. Human primary skin irritation test on a noncoloring shampoo containing 8 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-79.

89. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1979f. Submission of unpublished data. Repeat insult patch test on a skin cleanser containing 4 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-32.

90. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1980a. Submission of unpublished data. Subchronic dermal toxicity study on a medicated liquid cleanser containing 5.0 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-64.

91. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1980b. Submission of unpublished data. Human soap chamber test on a liquid soap containing 10 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-104.

92. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1980c. Submission of unpublished data. Repeat insult patch test on a liquid soap containing 10 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-150.

93. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1980d. Submission of unpublished data. Repeat insult patch test on a liquid soap containing 10 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-105.

94. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1981a. Submission of unpublished data. Human primary skin irritation test on a product containing 5 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-70.

95. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1982a. Submission of unpublished data. Subchronic dermal toxicity study on a cream cleanser containing 4.0 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-33.

96. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1982b. Submission of unpublished data. Human soap chamber test on a liquid soap containing 10 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-103.

97. CTFA. Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. 1982c. Submission of unpublished data. Human soap chamber test on a liquid soap containing 10 percent Lauramide DEA. CIR, Washington, DC. No. 2-32-102.

98. Daniell, W.E., W.G. Couser, and L. Rosenstock. 1988. Occupational solvent exposure and glomerulonephritis: A case report and review of the literature. J Am Med Assoc 259:2280-2283. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

99. Davidson, I.W.F., and R.P. Beliles. 1991. Consideration of target organ toxicity of trichloroethylene in terms of metabolite toxicity and pharmacokinetics. Drug Metabolism Reviews 23:493-599.

100. Daubert, T.E. and R.P. Danner. 1985. Data compilation tables of properties of pure compounds. Vol. 4. Design Inst for Physical Property Data, Am Inst of Chem Engin. Hemisphere Publishing Corp. New York, NY.

101. DeSimone, J., and M.A. Smith. 1996. Design and application of surfactants for carbon dioxide. Nomination for the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards Program. November 29.

102. DIALOG. 1993. Search of the "Freedonia Market Research Database",("July 8.

103. Dice, W.H., G. Ward, J. Kelley, et al. 1982. Pulmonary toxicity following gastrointestinal ingestion of kerosene. Ann Emerg Med 11:138-142.

104. Dimitriades, B., B.W. Gay Jr., R.R. Arnts, and R.L. Seila. 1983. Photochemical reactivity of perchloroethylene. 600/3-83-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory. Research Triangle Park, NC. [As cited in Versar (1987).]

105. Dmitrieva, N. V. 1965. Maximum permissible concentration of tetrachloroethylene in factory air. Hyg. Sanit. 31:387-393. (English translation). [As cited in USEPA (1985).]

106. Dmitrieva, N.V. 1968. Bioelectric activity and electric conducting properties of muscles exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbons. Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya 31(2):228-230. (English translation). [As cited in USEPA (1985).]

107. Dmitrieva, N.V. 1973. Changes in the bioelectrical activity in the cerebral cortex of rats with the narcotic effect of substances with different polarization properties. Experimental naya Khirurgiya i Anestezidogiya 6:72-75. (English translation). [As cited in USEPA (1985).]

108. DOE. 1993. An environmentally conscious approach to clothes maintenance - final report. Grant Proposal to USEPA, Department of Energy Kansas City Plant. Kansas City, MO. July.

109. Dolon, C. 1996. Personal communication between Chris Dolon, AquaTex, and Jonathan Greene, Abt Associates Inc. December.

110. Du Bach, C. 1994. Personal communication between Chris Du Bach, Fibrimatic, and Cassandra De Young, Abt Associates Inc. August 17.

111. Duh, R.W., and N.R. Asal. 1984. Mortality among laundry and dry cleaning workers in Oklahoma. Am Pub Health 74(11):1278-1280. [As cited in USEPA (1985).]

112. Earnest, G.S. 1997. Control of perchloroethylene exposures in dry cleaning. Hard copy of overhead projector slide presentation. Presented at the American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, Dallas, Texas. May 22. Sponsored by NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH.

113. Eberhardt, H., and K.J. Freundt. 1966. Tetrachloroethylene poisoning. Arch Toxikol (Berlin) 21:338-351. (In German; English translation). [As cited in USEPA (1985).]

114. ECETOC, 1990. Technical Report No. 37. Tetrachloroethylene Assessment of Human Carcinogenic Hazard.

115. Elder, J.A. 1994. Thermal, cumulative, and life span effects and cancer in mammals exposed to radiofrequency radiation. Chapter 13 in Biological effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields. DO Carpenter and S Ayrapetyan, eds, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, Volume 2, pp. 279- 295. (Appendix A)

116. Elder, J. 1994. Personal communication between J. Elder, USEPA Health Effects Research Laboratory, and Mays Swicord, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Div. of Life Sciences. July. (Chapter 4)

117. Environment Canada. 1995. Final report for the Green Clean J project. Prepared by Environment Canada and the Green Clean Project Participants. Government of Canada EN40-5-0/1995/E.

118. EPA-SAT. 1994. United Stated Environmental Protection Agency Structure Activity Team. Washington, DC.

119. EPRI. 1993. Electric Power Research Institute. Development of a microwave clothes dryer. Thermo Energy Corporation, Palo Alto, California; and JG Microwave, Twain Harte, California. EPRI TR-102114, Project 2034-39. Interim Report, July 1993.

120. Eskenazi, B., A.J. Wyrobek, L. Fenster, et al. 1991a. A study of the effect of perchloroethylene exposure on the reproductive outcomes of wives of dry cleaning workers. Am J Ind Med 20:575-691.

121. Eskenazi, B., A.J. Wyrobek, L. Fenster, et al. 1991b. A study of the effect of perchloroethylene exposure on semen quality in dry cleaning workers. Am J Ind Med 20:593-600.

122. Ewers, L., G. Earnest, A. Ruder, and G. Burroughts. 1997. Methods to evaluate exposure assessment in dry-cleaning. Paper presented at the American Industrial Hygiene Conference &Exposition, Dallas, TX, May 22, 1997. Sponsored by NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH.

123. Exxon. 1994. Personal communication between Exxon representative and Michael Müller, Abt Associates Inc. March.

124. Faha, T. Undated. Personal communication between T. Faha, Fairfax County Department of Public Works (FCDPW), and Mary Katherine Powers, USEPA/OPPT/EETD.

125. Faig, K. 1996. Personal communication between Ken Faig, International Fabricare Institute, and Alice Tome, Abt Associates Inc.

126. FCC. 1988. 21 CFR 1030. Performance standards for microwave and radio frequency emitting products. Section 1310.10. 21 CFR Ch. 1, 4-1-88 edition.

127. Ferguson, M. Undated. Personal communication between M. Ferguson, Water Control Board Office of Environmental Quality, State of Virginia, and Mary Katherine Powers, USEPA/OPPT/EETD.

128. Flick, E.W. 1990. Industrial solvents handbook, 4th ed. Noyes Data Corp. Park Ridge, NJ.

129. Flodin, U., C. Edling, and O. Axelson. 1984. Clinical studies with psychoorganic syndromes among workers with exposure to solvents. Am J Ind Med 5:287-295. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

130. Fowler, J.F. 1993. Cocamidopropyl betaine: the significance of positive patch test results in twelve patients. Cutis 52:281-284.

131. Franchini, I., A. Cavatorta, M. Falzoi, S. Lucertini, and A. Mutti. 1983. Early indicators of renal damage in workers exposed to organic solvents. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 52:1-9.

132. Friberg, L., B. Kylin, and A. Nystrom. 1953. Toxicities of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene and Fujiwara's pyridine-alkali reaction. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 9:303-312. [As cited in ATSDR (1993).]

133. Frost and Sullivan. 1991. The U.S. market for industrial solvents 1991/92. Frost and Sullivan, New York, NY.

134. Gamberale, F., G. Annwall, and M. Hultengren. 1975. Exposure to white spirit: II. Psychological functions. Scand J. Work Environ Health 1:39-39.

135. Gay Jr., B.W., P.L. Hanst, J.J. Bufalini, and R.C. Noonan. 1976. Atmospheric oxidation of chlorinated ethylenes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 10:58-67. [As cited in Versar (1987).]

136. Giesen, L. 1994. Personal communication between Leo Giesen, VIC Manufacturing, and Cassandra De Young, Abt Associates Inc. August 11.

137. Gochet, B., C. de Meester, A. Leonard, et al. 1984. Lack of mutagenic activity of white spirit. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 53:359-364. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

138. Gold, J.H. 1969. Chronic perchloroethylene poisoning. Can Psychiatric Assoc J 14:627-630. [As cited in USEPA (1985).]

139. Goodheart, J. 1996. Personal communication between Jessica Goodheart, UCLA Pollution Prevention Education and Research Center, and Jonathan Greene, Abt Associates Inc. December 30.

140. Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, and H.C. Hodge. 1984. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. Williams and Wilkins.

141. Gottlieb, R., J. Goodheart, P. Sinsheimer, C. Tranby, and L. Bechtel. 1996. UCLA Wet Cleaning Demonstration Project. Interim Progress Report. UCLA Pollution Prevention Education and Research Center. Los Angeles, CA. November.

142. Grady, P. 1996. EPA's ORD research program on alternative technologies, part II. Presented at Conf. on Apparel Care and the Environment: Alternative Technologies and Labeling, Washington. September. pp. 49-54.

143. Green, T., J. Odum, J.A. Nash, and J.K. Foster. 1990. Perchloroethylene-induced rat kidney tumors: An investigation of the mechanisms involved and their relevance to humans. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 103:77-89.

144. Greenpeace, 1997. Information on wet cleaning facilities downloaded from website http://www.greenpeace.org/wetlist.html.

145. Gregersen, P. 1988. Neurotoxic effects of organic solvents in exposed workers: Two controlled follow-up studies after 5.5 and 10.6 years. Am J Ind Med 14:681-702. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

146. Gregersen, P., B. Angelsoe, T.E. Nielson, et al. 1984. Neurotoxic effects of organic solvents in exposed workers: An occupational, neuropsychological, and neurological investigation. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

147. GSC. 1988. General Services Corporation. Exposure screening manual. Prepared for USEPA, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, under Contract No. 68-02-4281.

148. GTLLC. 1996. Letter from Jack Belluscio, Global Technologies LLC, to Joseph Breen, US EPA/OPPT/DfE. September 10.

149. Hake, C.L., and R.D. Stewart. 1977. Human exposure to tetrachloroethylene: Inhalation and skin contact. Environ Health Perspect 21:231-238. [As cited in ATSDR (1993).]

150. Hand, T. 1994. Personal communication between Tom Hand, Allied Signal, and Sue Hollenbeck, SAIC. June.

151. Hane, M., O. Axelson, J. Blume, et al. 1977. Psychological function changes among house painters. Scand J Work Environ Health 3:91-99. [As cited in ATSDR (1995).]

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316. Singh, H.B., L.J. Salas, and R. Stiles. 1981b. Trace chemicals in the clean atmosphere. EPA 600/3-81-055. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park, NC. [As cited in Dimitriades et al. (1983).]

317. Smith, M.K., J.L. Randall, E.J. Read, and J.A. Stober. 1989. Teratogenic activity of trichloroacetic acid. Teratology 40:445-451. [As cited in Davidson and Beliles (1991).]

318. Smith, R. 1994. Personal communication between Richard Smith, Thermo- Energy, and Sue Hollenbeck, SAIC. June.

319. Smith, R. 1994. Personal communication between Richard Smith, Thermo- Energy Corporation, Palo Alto, California, and Jill Gendelman, USEPA. July 19. (Appendix A)

320. Smith, D. 1994. Personal communication between Dick Smith, Thermo-Energy Corp., and Alice Tome, Abt Associates Inc. December 14. (Chapter 6)

321. Smith, D. 1995. Personal communication between Dick Smith, Thermo-Energy Corp., and Cassandra De Young, Abt Associates Inc. January 3.

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327. Stanley, M. 1994. Personal communication between Mary Stanley, Cissell Manufacturing, and Cassandra De Young, Abt Associates Inc. August 23.

328. Starr, A. 1997. Personal communication between Anthony Starr, Center for Neighborhood Technologies, and Alice Tome, Abt Associates Inc. May.

329. State Environmental Protection Agency. 1992. The measurements of tetrachloroethylene concentrations in the work rooms of dry cleaning establishments and in rooms adjacent to dry cleaners in the German state of Baden-Wurttemberg. Final report. Translated by Abt Associates Inc. for USEPA. Hertzstrasse, Germany.

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332. Stork, B. 1994. Personal communication between Bill Stork, ArtiChill, and Cassandra De Young, Abt Associates Inc. August 15.

333. Suissa, S. 1996. Personal communication between Sam Suissa, Omega Cleaning Systems, and Alice Tome, Abt Associates Inc. August 4.

334. Sullivan, G. 1996. Personal communication between Gail Sullivan, Abt Associates Inc., and Jonathan Greene, Abt Associates Inc. December 19.

335. Szmigielski, S., A. Szymdzinski, A. Pietraszek, M. Bielec, M. Janiak, and J.K. Wrembel. 1982. Accelerated development of spontaneous and benzopyrene-induced skin cancer in mice exposed to 2450-MHz microwave radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 3:179-191. [As cited in Elder (1994).]

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338. Tepe, S.J., M.K. Dorfmueller, R.G. York, and J.M. Manson. 1982. Teratogenic evaluation of perchloroethylene in rats. Unpublished. [As cited in USEPA (1985).]

339. Till, J. 1994. Personal communication between Jamie Till and Tom Abbott, Dynaclean, and Sharon Dubrow, SAIC. September.

340. Tirell, D.C. 1989. Dry cleaning. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 5th ed. VCH Publishers. New York, NY. pp. A9:49-53.

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347. Unsworth, R.E., and J.E. Neumann. 1993. Industrial Economics, Incorporated. Review of existing value of morbidity avoidance estimates: Draft valuation document. Memorandum to Jim DeMocker, USEPA Office of Policy Analysis and Review. September 30.

348. Unsworth, A. 1994. Personal communication between Allan Unsworth, Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, Office of Trade and Economic Analysis, and Rob Funk, Abt Associates Inc. December 19.

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350. USEPA. 1982. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Petroleum dry cleaners: background information for proposed standards. Draft EIS. Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC. (Chapters 1, 8 &Appendix B)

351. USEPA. 1982a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Guideline series: Control of volatile organic compound emissions from large petroleum dry cleaners. EPA-450/3-82-009. USEPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC. (Chapter 3)

352. USEPA. 1982b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Petroleum dry cleaners: Background information for proposed standards. Draft environmental impact statement. USEPA, Office of Air Quality Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC. (Chapter 3)

353. USEPA. 1984. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Estimating concern levels for concentrations of chemical substances in the environment. USEPA, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Health and Environmental Review Division (7403), Environmental Effects Branch. Washington, DC. (Chapter 2)

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357. USEPA. 1986. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Study: Summary and analysis. USEPA, Office of Acid Deposition, Environmental Monitoring and Quality Assurance. (Chapters 3 &4)

358. USEPA. 1986. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Addendum to the health assessment document for tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene). Updated carcinogenicity assessment for tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene, PERC, PCE). Review Draft. EPA/600/8-82/005FA. (Appendix A)

359. USEPA. 1986a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Addendum to the health assessment document for tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene). Updated carcinogenicity assessment for tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PERC, PCE). Review draft. EPA /600/8-82/005FA. (Appendix C)

360. USEPA. 1986b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Risk assessment guidelines. EPA/600/8-87/045. Washington, DC. (Appendix C)

361. USEPA. 1987. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A reassessment of the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation non-cancer effects. USEPA, Office of Radiation Programs, Health Effects Research Laboratory. Research Triangle Park, NC. July 21. (Appendix A)

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363. USEPA. 1988. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Evaluation of perchloroethylene emissions from dry cleaned fabrics. EPA 600/2-88-061. USEPA, Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Research Triangle Park, NC. October. (Chapters 3, 4, Appendix B)

364. USEPA. 1988. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Options for regulating PCE emissions in the dry cleaning industry: a cost-benefit analysis. Draft report. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Washington, DC. (Chapter 6)

365. USEPA. 1989. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Exposure Factors Handbook. USEPA, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Exposure Assessment Group. (Chapter 3)

366. USEPA. 1989. Exposure Factors Handbook. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Exposure Assessment Group. (Appendix B)

367. USEPA. 1990. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Drycleaning and laundry plants, RCRA/Superfund fact sheet. EPA/530-SW-90-027b. Draft environmental impact statement. EPA-450/3-91-020a. Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards. Washington, DC. (Chapter 6)

368. USEPA. 1991. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Dry cleaning facilities - background information for proposed facilities. Draft environmental impact statement. EPA-450/3-91-020a. USEPA, Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards. Washington, DC. November. (Chapter 3)

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370. USEPA. 1991. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Response to issues and data submissions on the carcinogenicity of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene). EPA/6006-91/002R. (Chapter 4)

371. USEPA. 1991a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Dry cleaning facilities - background information for proposed facilities. Draft EIS. EPA-450/3-91-020a. Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards. November. (Chapter 1)

372. USEPA. 1991a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Dry cleaning facilities - background information for proposed facilities. Draft environmental impact statement. EPA-450/3-91-020a. Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards. Washington, DC. November. (Chapter 6)

373. USEPA. 1991a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Response to issues and data submissions on the carcinogenicity of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene). EPA/600/6-91/002F. (Appendix A)

374. USEPA. 1991b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Economic impact analysis of regulatory controls in the dry cleaning industry. Final. EPA-450/3-91-021. Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards. October. (Chapters 1 & 6)

375. USEPA. 1991b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Guidelines for developmental toxicity risk assessment. Notice. 56(234) FR 63798. (Appendix A)

376. USEPA. 1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Final Rule. (57 FR 33754). (Chapter 2)

377. USEPA. 1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Preliminary economic assessment of transfer enclosure requirements in the dry cleaning industry. USEPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC. August. (Chapter 4)

378. USEPA. 1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EMF in your environment: Magnetic measurements of everyday electrical devices. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air. Washington, DC, 20460. EPA 402-R-92-008. (Appendix A)

379. USEPA. 1992. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A cross-species scaling factor for carcinogen risk-assessment based on equivalence of mg/kg3/4/day. Draft report. (57(109) FR 24152-24). (Appendix C)

380. USEPA. 1992a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Preliminary economic assessment of transfer enclosure requirements in the dry cleaning industry. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC. August. (Chapter 1)

381. USEPA. 1992a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. USEPA proceedings: international round table on pollution prevention and control in the dry cleaning industry. May 27-28. (Chapter 3)

382. USEPA. 1992b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. International roundtable on pollution prevention and control in the dry cleaning industry. EPA/774/R-92/002. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Washington, DC. (Chapter 1, Appendix B)

383. USEPA. 1992b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Preliminary economic assessment of transfer enclosure requirements in the dry cleaning industry. USEPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC. August. (Chapter 3)

384. USEPA. 1992c. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Guidelines for exposure assessment. (57 FR 22932). (Chapter 3)

385. USEPA. 1993. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Economic analysis of air pollution regulations: dry cleaning industry. RTI Project Number 5428-33 DR. Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC. September. (Chapter 8)

386. USEPA. 1993. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Dry cleaning industry MACT standard. Briefing for the Deputy Administrator. USEPA, Office of Air and Radiation. May 24. (Appendix A)

387. USEPA. 1993a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Dry cleaning facilities - Background information for promulgated standards. Final EIS. EPA 450/3-91-020b. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC. September. (Chapter 1)

388. USEPA. 1993a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Dry cleaning industry MACT standard. Briefing for the Deputy Administrator. USEPA, Office of Air and Radiation. May 24. (Chapter 3)

389. USEPA. 1993a. Dermal Model User's Guide. Prepared by Versar for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. (Appendix B)

390. USEPA. 1993a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Multiprocess wet cleaning cost and performance comparison of conventional dry cleaning and an alternative process. EPA 744-R-93-004. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. Washington, DC. (Chapter 6)

391. USEPA. 1993b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Economic impact analysis of regulatory controls in the dry cleaning industry. EPA450/3-91-021b. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC. (Chapter 1)

392. USEPA. 1993b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for source categories: Perchloroethylene dry cleaning facilities. Final Rule. (58 FR 49354). (Chapter 3)

393. USEPA. 1993b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Economic analysis of air pollution regulations: dry cleaning industry. RTI Project Number 5428-33 DR. Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC. September. (Chapter 6)

394. USEPA. 1993b. Exposure Assessment Branch revised exposure report for the TRI listing of phosphine. (Appendix B)

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