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CTSA - Chapter 3: Risk

Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA): Lithographic Blanket Washes
This chapter addresses the exposures and associated risks that may result from using the substitute blanket washes. Section 3.1 contains information on environmental releases. Potential releases to air, and land and water are discussed for each blanket wash. Section 3.2 examines potential occupational exposures. The dermal and inhalation exposures that can occur as a result of working with a blanket wash are presented. Section 3.3 addresses exposures for the general population (i.e., people not working in the print shop), and includes information on human exposures to blanket wash chemicals released to both air and surface water. In all three sections, the methodologies and models used for estimating releases and exposures are described along with the associated assumptions and uncertainties. Section 3.4 moves from exposures to the risks and concerns associated with such exposures. Descriptions of how risk characterizations are made and the types of risks examined (such as carcinogenic, chronic and developmental), are followed by discussions of the risks assigned to the environmental, occupational and general population exposures discussed earlier in the chapter. In Section 3.5, methods of reducing worker risk are discussed. Topics such as employee training, proper handling of chemicals, and use of personal safety equipment and equipment safeguards are reviewed.

3.1 Environmental Release Estimates [72 K pdf]
3.2 Occupational Exposure Estimates [94 K pdf]
3.3 General Population Exposure Estimates [120 K pdf]
3.4 Risk Characterization [142 K pdf]
3.4.1 Background
3.4.2 Ecological Risk
3.4.3 Occupational Risks
3.4.4 General Population Risks
3.5 Process Safety Concerns [50 K pdf]

Chapter 3 in its entirety. [334 K pdf file]

[PDF] PLEASE NOTE: Some of the documents mentioned in this Section are in Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF). To view or print them you will need to have the Adobe Acrobat Reader program installed on your computer. The Reader can be downloaded and used with no charge; check here for more information on the Adobe Acrobat Reader.

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