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Table of Contents

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

1.0 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
    1.1 Overview of DfE PWB Project
    1.2 Purpose of the Survey
    1.3 Survey Procedures
    1.4 Overview of Results

2.0 FACILITY CHARACTERIZATION
    2.1 General
    2.2 Comparison of Facility Sizes
    2.3 General Process Information

3.0 PRODUCTION METHODS AND MATERIALS
    3.1 General
    3.2 Overview of PWB Manufacturing Process
    3.3 Specific PWB Production Steps
      3.3.1 Inner-Layer Etchants
      3.3.2 Oxide
      3.3.3 Clean Holes (Desmear)
      3.3.4 Making Holes Conductive (or Through-Hole Metalizing)
      3.3.5 Outer-Layer Etch Resist
      3.3.6 Outer Layer Etchant
      3.3.7 Solder Masks
    3.4 Chemical Usage

4.0 WASTEWATER DATA
    4.1 General
    4.2 Discharge Types
    4.3 Discharge Flow Rates
    4.4 Discharge Limits and Compliance Difficulties

5.0 POLLUTION PREVENTION AND WATER CONSERVATION METHODS
    5.1 General
    5.2 Good Operating Procedures
    5.3 Drag-out Reduction and Recovery Methods
    5.4 Rinse Water Use Reduction

6.0 RECYCLE, RECOVERY, AND BATH MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGIES
    6.1 General
    6.2 Technologies in Use by Respondents
      6.2.1 Ion Transfer/Porous Pot
      6.2.2 Ion Exchange
      6.2.3 Electrowinning
      6.2.4 Other Technologies

7.0 OFF-SITE RECYCLING
    7.1 General
    7.2 Off-site Recycling of Spent Process Baths
    7.3 Wastewater Treatment Sludge

8.0 END-OF-PIPE TREATMENT
    8.1 General
    8.2 Wastewater Characterization
    8.3 Types of Processes/Systems Employed
    8.4 End-of-Pipe Treatment Capital Costs
    8.5 End-of-Pipe Treatment Operation Costs
    8.6 Sludge Generation and Disposal
    8.7 Air Pollution Control

9.0 PWB INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND NEEDS
    9.1 General
    9.2 Environmental and Occupational Health Challenges
    9.3 Information Needs
    9.4 Source of Technical Information

REFERENCES
APPENDIX A (SURVEY FORM) APPENDIX B (PROCESS CHEMICAL DATA)

LIST OF EXHIBITS

Exhibit 2-1. Facility Characterization Data
Exhibit 2-2. Product Type and Technology Level Data
Exhibit 2-3. Distribution of Respondents by Technology Level
Exhibit 2-4. Distribution of Respondents by Board Type
Exhibit 2-5. Base Materials Used for Rigid PWB Manufacture
Exhibit 2-6. Process Capabilities of Respondents
Exhibit 3-1. Overview of Rigid PWB Manufacturing Process Sequences
Exhibit 3-2. Inner-Layer and Outer-Layer Etchants Used by Survey Respondents
Exhibit 3-3. Distribution of Inner and Outer Layer Etchant Use Types Employed by Survey Respondents
Exhibit 3-4. Inner-Layer Copper Surface Preparation Data
Exhibit 3-5. Etchback and Desmear Methods Data
Exhibit 3-6. Distribution of Etchback and Desmear Methods Employed by Survey Respondents
Exhibit 3-7. Through-Hole Metalizing Methods Data
Exhibit 3-8. Distribution of Through-Hole Metalizing Methods Employed by Survey Respondents
Exhibit 3-9. Outer-Layer Etch Resists Data
Exhibit 3-10. Distribution of Outer Layer Etch Resists Methods Employed by Survey Respondents
Exhibit 3-11. Solder Mask Data
Exhibit 4-1. Water Use and Wastewater Discharge Information
Exhibit 4-2. Discharge Limitations and Compliance Difficulties

Exhibit 5-1. Good Operating Procedures Employed by Survey Respondents
Exhibit 5-2. Drag-Out Reduction and Recovery Methods Data
Exhibit 5-3. Distribution of Drag-Out Reduction and Recovery Methods
Exhibit 5-4. Rinse Water Use Reduction Methods Data
Exhibit 5-5. Distribution of Rinse Water Use Reduction Methods
Exhibit 5-6. Wastewater Discharge Reduction Achieved Through Pollution Prevention

Exhibit 7-1. Off-Site Recycling of Spent Process Fluids (continued on nest page)
Exhibit 7-2. Off-Site Recycling/Disposal of Wastewater Treatment Sludge

Exhibit 8-1. Wastewater Characterization Data
Exhibit 8-2. Wastewater Treatment Equipment Data
Exhibit 8-3. Wastewater Treatment Operating Costs
Exhibit 8-4. Wastewater Treatment Operating Costs as a Percentage of Sales Volume
Exhibit 8-5. Air Pollution Control Devices

Exhibit 9-1. PWB Industry Environmental and Occupational Health Challenges
Exhibit 9-2. PWB Industry Information Needs
Exhibit 9-3. PWB Industry Sources of Technical Information
Exhibit 9-4. Desired Media for Presentation of Survey Results

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