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You are here: EPA Home » DfE » Draft Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA): Screen Reclamation - Chapter 4

Draft Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA): Screen Reclamation - Chapter 4

EPA 744R-94-005a
September 1994

Screen Reclamation Products: Functional Groups


The intent of this chapter is to define the characteristics associated with each ink remover, emulsion remover and haze remover. Because of the specific functions these three types of products perform, they have been designated as functional groups in a screen reclamation system. Information on the characteristics associated with each of these functional groups is presented in a format that will allow comparison of several types of products within each functional group. For example, given a hazard summary, purchase cost, exposure analysis and risk characterization for several different types of ink removers, decisions regarding which one of these products would work best in an individual facility could be made. However, to gain a better understanding of all the issues associated with the ink removers, performance information in Chapter V should be referenced. In this chapter information about the different ink removers is combined with emulsion and haze removers, forming a product system by which they are typically sold. In this way the variables of performance and total cost can be fully evaluated.

In the sections below, characteristics of many of the different formulations associated with ink, emulsion and haze removers are described. However, these formulations are not all-inclusive; other formulations may be available commercially. These particular formulations were selected by a workgroup consisting of screen printing manufacturers who participated in the performance demonstration, SPAI and DfE staff. For the purposes of this document, an ink remover has been defined as any chemical, set of chemicals, process or technology that removes ink from the screen surface. Ink removers can also be referred to as ink degradants. Because the final screen reclamation process is being considered, not press-side in-process activities, some of the ink removers may also remove emulsions. An emulsion or stencil remover has been defined as any chemical, set of chemicals, process or technology that removes an emulsion from the screen surface. Lastly, a haze remover has been defined as any chemical, set of chemicals, process or technology that can remove the residual pigment and resin in screen mesh so as to eliminate ghost images.

Each functional group is evaluated as follows:

  • Hazard Summary and Cost
  • Occupational Exposure
  • Occupational Risk Conclusions and Observations
  • Environmental Releases in Screen Cleaning Operations
  • Ecological Risks from Water Releases
  • General Population Exposure Conclusions and Observations

At the end of this chapter is a brief discussion of the process of manufacturing screen reclamation chemical products and a general source release assessment on product formulation. Energy and natural resources use in product formulation is also discussed. Information on these areas could not be discussed for each formulation or technology due to limited data availability.

Information about pollution prevention opportunities through workpractice changes and equipment modifications is discussed in Chapter VI.

Chapter IV: Screen Reclamation Products: Functional Groups [146 K PDF]

Ink Removal Function

Substitute Comparative Assessment
Exposure Analysis & Risk Characterization

Emulsion Removal Function

Substitute Comparative Assessment
Exposure Analysis & Risk Characterization

Haze Removal Function

Substitute Comparative Assessment
Exposure Analysis & Risk Characterization

Manufacturing of Screen Reclamation Chemical Products

Manufacturing Process
Source Release Assessment: Product Formulation
Energy and Natural Resources Issues


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