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Cleaning Products Pilot Project (CPPP)

Project History
Project Status
Lessons Learned

A  B  D  E  F  G  L   M  P  R  S  V 

Select the first letter of the word from the list above to jump to appropriate section of the glossary.

- A -

Air Pollution Potential:

Products may contain volatile organic compounds (VOC). When these products are used, the VOCs may escape to the atmosphere and react to form smog. Smog and other atmospheric pollutants have been shown to cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, and to cause asthma attacks. Many state and local authorities have restrictions on the use of VOCs.

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- B -

Bioconcentration Factor (BCF):

Ratio of the concentration of a chemical in an organism to the concentration of the chemical in its surrounding aqueous environment. BCF values are surrogate measures of the bioaccumulation potential of a chemical in organisms in the environment.

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- D -


Dyes are both solid and liquid coloring matter used to impart a particular hue to liquids, cloth, or paper. Dyes may be composed of both synthetic and natural materials, which include both organic and inorganic chemicals. Dyes may be used in cleaning agents as a means to identify a particular solution. Depending on the chemical nature of dyes, their presence in cleaning a solution may pose human health and environmental hazards.

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- E -

Environmentally Preferable Product:

(Definition according to E.O. 13101 on Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention): Products and services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared to other products and services that serve the same purpose.
Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP):

Ensures that environmental considerations are included in purchasing decisions, along with traditional factors, such as product price and performance. The Environmental Protection Agency's EPP program provides guidance for Federal agencies to facilitate purchases of goods and services that pose fewer burdens on the environment.
E.O. 12873 (PDF) (8 pp, 35KB, About PDF) , Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Minimization (superseded by E.O. 13101 (PDF) (11 pp, 97KB, About PDF))

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- F -

Food Chain Exposure:

Some ready-to-use cleaning products may contain ingredients that will be taken up by smaller aquatic plants and animals and increase in concentration through the food chain as these plants and animals are consumed by larger animals. If you intend to use these products in areas where wastewater is adequately treated, this attribute may be less important as an environmental impact. If you intend to use these products in areas where wastewater treatment is less efficient, this attribute may be more important to you. This attribute is measured by calculating its bioconcentration factor BCF).


A pleasing, odorous scent derived for synthetic and natural chemical additions to cleaning products. Depending on the chemical nature of fragrances, their presence in cleaning solution may pose human health and environmental hazards.

FTC Guides for Use of Environmental Marketing Claims:

Describe the proper use of environmental marketing claims and promote the use of accurate and honest product information. They apply to all forms of product marketing, including advertisements, labels, package inserts, or promotional materials. The FTC Guides contain examples that illustrate each product claim and labeling concept. These examples and the accompanying explanations help marketers to qualify their own environmental claims so they are specific and honest.

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- G -

General Services Administration (GSA):

GSA, along with the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), supplies goods and services to all facilities and workers under the jurisdiction of the Federal government. GSA and DLA tend to offer different products and services to customers although there may some overlapping coverage. Federal workers are no longer required to purchase all goods and services from GSA and DLA.
GSA Advantage:

The General Services Administration's Internet accessible tool for ordering products.

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- L -

Life Cycle Assessment:

A life cycle assessment (LCA) is a process for evaluating the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity. LCAs identify and quantify energy and material users and releases to the environment. The assessment covers the entire life-cycle of the product, process, or activity, including extracting and processing the raw materials;manufacturing, transporting, and distributing the product; product use, reuse, and maintenance; recycling; and final disposal.

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- M -

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS):

Forms that contain brief information regarding chemical and physical hazards, health effects, proper handling, storage, and personal protection appropriate for use of a particular chemical in an occupational environment.

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- P -

Paper Packaging 60 FR 21386 (5/1/95):
Public Building Service:

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- R -

Recovered Materials 60 FR 14190 (3/15/95):
Reinventing Government Initiative:

Under the Reinventing Government initiative launched by President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore, GSA was tasked with improving government procurement methods. Under this initiative, GSA's Commercial Products Acquisition Laboratory (CPAL) is developing procedures to allow GSA customers to purchase commercially available items in addition to products based on government specifications. Cleaning products are among the first commercially available items under this reinvention program. Additional GSA reinvention efforts include improving GSA Advantage! system, an electronic shopping service available to Federal purchasers over the Internet, and facilitating government use of commercial credit cards, which are intended to streamline procurement and payment schedules.

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- S -

Skin Irritation:

Some ready-to-use cleaning products may contain chemicals that will cause redness or swelling of skin.

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- V -

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs):

Organic chemical compounds, such as Benzene, that have a low vapor pressure and therefore will readily volatilize into the surrounding air in the form of a vapor. This property of VOCs causes them to have a comparatively high inhalation and dermal exposure potential, as well as a tendency to affect the air quality of a region.

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