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Overview of All Chemical Action Plans

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This page provides a very brief summary overview of all the chemical action plans released to date by EPA. Click on the chemical name for more detailed information on each individual action plan and for direct links to the action plans themselves.

Bisphenol A (BPA) – Used in manufacturing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins used in nearly every industry and many consumer products, including food packaging regulated by FDA. BPA is a reproductive, developmental, and systemic toxicant in animal studies and is weakly estrogenic. Novel studies addressing different endpoints than standardized tests suggest possible adverse effects to sensitive aquatic organisms at lower concentrations than previously identified, but uncertainties exist in interpreting those data. To address these environmental concerns and uncertainties, EPA intends to:

Dyes Derived from Benzidine and its Congeners - Used in the production of textiles, paints, printing inks, paper, and pharmaceuticals. These dyes have long been known as potential human carcinogens. The primary human health concern for consumers is exposure to the benzidine-based and benzidine-congener-based dyes through oral, dermal or inhalation routes. Evidence from animal studies suggests that there is early life susceptibility to benzidine carcinogenesis. To reduce these potential risks, EPA intends to:

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) - Used as a flame retardant in expanded polystyrene foam in the building and construction industry, as well as consumer products. HBCD is persistent, bioaccumulative and can undergo long-range atmospheric transport. HBCD is highly toxic to aquatic organisms. Health concerns include potential reproductive, developmental and neurological effects in humans. To reduce these potential risks, EPA intends to:

Long Chain Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs) – Used in a variety of industrial and consumer applications, including as a processing aid in the manufacture of non-stick and stain-resistant surfaces. PFCs are found world-wide in the environment, wildlife, and humans; are bioaccumulative in wildlife and humans and persistent in the environment; and are toxic to laboratory animals and wildlife. EPA intends to:

Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI) and Related Compounds – Used in chemical reactions to produce a wide variety of polyurethane products. Diisocyanates are known dermal and inhalation sensitizers that have been documented as a major cause of work-related asthma, lung damage, and in severe cases, fatal reactions. Most polyurethane products are fully reacted, or “cured,” and thus don’t contain uncured, available MDI, but some products (such as spray-applied foam sealants, adhesives, and coatings) are intended to undergo further reactions in use. To address the potential health effects that may result from consumers, non-OSHA (self-employed) workers, or the general population being exposed to uncured (unreacted) MDI through the use of such products, including products being marketed for consumer use, EPA intends to:

Nonylphenol (NP) and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates (NPEs) - Used in a wide variety of industrial applications and consumer products such as detergents, cleaners, agricultural and indoor pesticides, food packaging and cosmetics. NP is persistent in the aquatic environment, moderately bioaccumulative, and extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. NPs have been detected in human breast milk, blood, and urine and are associated with reproductive and developmental effects in rodents. There are potential children’s health concerns related NP and NPE exposure. To reduce these potential risks, EPA intends to:

Phthalates (includes eight phthalates) – Used as plasticizers to increase the flexibility, transparency, durability and longevity of plastics. Phthalates primarily pose a concern for development of the male reproductive system. On the basis of existing information, EPA believes the following actions would be warranted to manage the risks that may be presented by the eight phthalates:

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, includes Penta, Octa, and Decabromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) – Used as flame retardants in a wide range of products. PBDEs may pose hazards to both humans, particularly children, and the environment due to their toxicity. On the basis of existing information, the Agency believes the following actions would be warranted:

Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (SCCPs) and Other Chlorinated Paraffins – Used as a component of lubricants and coolants in metalworking applications and as both a secondary plasticizer and flame retardant in plastics. SCCPs are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to aquatic organisms at low concentrations. EPA intends to:

Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) and Related Compounds – Used in chemical reactions to produce a wide variety of polyurethane products. Diisocyanates are known dermal and inhalation sensitizers that have been documented as a major cause of work-related asthma, lung damage, and in severe cases, fatal reactions. Most polyurethane products are fully reacted, or “cured,” and thus don’t contain uncured, available TDI, but some products (such as spray-applied sealants and coatings) are intended to undergo further reactions in use. To address the potential health effects that may result from consumers, non-OSHA (self-employed) workers, or the general population being exposed to uncured (unreacted) TDI through the use of such products, EPA intends to:

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