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environmental exposureThe Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) has developed several exposure assessment methods, databases, and predictive models to help in evaluating:

consumer and community exposure

 These models and tools are intended to be used by scientists and engineers familiar with exposure assessment principles. They may be helpful when appropriate monitoring data are not available or need to be supplemented, and in:

  • considering potential exposure when designing and selecting products and processes;
  • and evaluating pollution prevention opportunities. 

The results of an exposure assessment are generally combined with a hazard assessment (potential for a chemical to cause adverse health or environmental effects). When combined, this information is used to evaluate whether there is a potential risk that requires Agency attention.

Application of OPPT's Exposure Assessment Tools and Models
Model Consumer General Population Workers Environmental Download Availability
Dermal Inhalation Drinking Water Fish Ingestion Inhalation
Source Ranking Database   checked           v 4.0 4/2004
Use Cluster Scoring System           checked checked  
Chemical Screening Tool for Exposures and Environmental Releases           checked checked Beta 5/2004
Exposure, Fate Assessment Screening Tool checked checked checked checked checked   checked
Version 2014
10/2014
Estimation Program Interface (EPI) Suite               version 4.1 Jan. 2011
Pesticide Inert Risk Assessment Tool
checked
checked           Beta version 12/2003
ReachScan     checkmark checkmark     checked  
ADL Polymer Migration Estimation Model              
AMEM v1.0/2008
Internet Geographical Exposure Modeling Systems/Chemical Safety Mapper (IGEMS/CSM)     checked checked checked   checked
commenting period 7/1/2012-12/31/2012
Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model   checked           version 1.2 2/2001
Wall Paint Exposure Assessment Model   checked       checked   version 3.2 4/2001
*In addition to estimating worker exposures by the dermal and inhalation routes, ChemSTEER estimates environmental releases from industrial and commercial operations.
**Except for the the BioHCwin and KOAWIN models, EPI SuiteTM and the individual programs included in the software are owned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and are protected by copyright throughout the world.  EPI SuiteTM estimates physical/chemical properties and environmental fate and transport.  EPI SuiteTM includes estimation programs for octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW), organic carbon-normalized partition coefficient for soil and sediment (KOC), atmospheric oxidation potential, Henry's Law constant, water solubility, melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA), sorption to aerosols, biodegradation, bioconcentration and bioaccumulation factors, hydrolysis, removal of chemicals in sewage treatment plants, and multimedia modeling.

OPPT uses these tools in a tiered approach to exposure assessment. In order to find tools that are most appropriate for your needs, the exposure assessment tools have been grouped by Specialized Priority Setting Tools, Screening Level Tools, and Higher Tier Tools. The three categories of tools can be used together in a tiered approach to efficiently assess potential exposures to chemicals. 

occupational exposureSpecialized Priority Setting Tools use standardized criteria and exposure models, and hazard information. These Tools are designed to:

If you are evaluating a large number (hundreds, thousands) of chemicals for potential exposures, these tools can help in identifying chemicals and issues for further review. You can then focus and refine your assessment for those chemicals which rank higher based on the standardized criteria. Our Specialized Priority Setting Tools include:

Source Ranking Database

Use Cluster Scoring System

Screening Level Tools use readily available data and simple models, and are designed to:

If a screening level predicted exposure result is of potential concern, an appropriate next step would be to refine the assessment by collecting monitoring data and/or to use a more detailed model. Screening Level Tools include:

Chemical Screening Tool For Exposures And Environmental Releases

Exposure, Fate Assessment Screening Tool

Estimation Program Interface (EPI) Suite

Pesticide Inert Risk Assessment Tool

ReachScan

Higher Tier Tools use detailed data and more sophisticated models and are designed to:

These tools are complex and often require substantial, detailed data as input to the model. Where possible, data sets and default values are included with the model. A solid, technical background in science, chemistry, engineering or related disciplines is needed to use them appropriately. Higher tier tools include:

ADL Polymer Migration Estimation Model (AMEM)

AMEM is a DOS-based software product developed in 1989 that uses a family of mathematical equations that address simple and complex scenarios for chemical migration. The more complex equations require more input data. Using the model, you may:

Internet Geographical Exposure Modeling Systems/Chemical Safety Mapper (IGEMS/CSM)

Multi-Chamber Concentration And Exposure Model (MCCEM)

Wall Paint Exposure Assessment Model (WPEM)

OPPT began developing these tools in the mid-1980s for use in our programs. Most of the tools have been peer reviewed. A few are scheduled for peer review upon completion of the ongoing updates. Where possible, EPA has compared the modeled results with monitoring data, but a thorough validation has not been conducted. EPA's comparisons have been favorable, but we encourage you to learn about the models, and evaluate them for your application before relying on modeled results. You may want to collect monitoring data as part of your evaluation. We encourage you to share your findings with us so we can continue to improve, refine and enhance these tools.


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