Related Programs and Studies
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Other Government Agency Programs
- The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released their Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals , which provides the latest U.S. biomonitoring information on PFCs and other chemicals.
- The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), published a Federal Register Notice on May 12, 2008, announcing development of a set of 22 toxicological profiles, including one on PFCs.
- In February 2009, ATSDR released a health consultation response on consumption of PFOA contaminated water by sensitive populations (PDF). (3 pp., 541 KB, About PDF)
- In July 2009, ATSDR released a draft Toxicological Profile on Perfluoroalkyls available for public comment by October 30th, 2009.
- National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), together with the University of Pennsylvania, conducted the Little Hocking Area C8 Study from 2004 to 2005 to examine PFOA concentrations in the bloodstream and breast milk of residents in the area of the Little Hocking Water Association and to evaluate the association between those levels and the potential routes of exposure to C8. Results were published in 2006, describing the relationships between serum concentrations and exposure sources and relationships between serum levels and certain health parameters .
- In 2003, EPA submitted a nomination (PDF) (9 pp., 308 KB, About PDF) to National Toxicology Program's (NTP) to conduct studies on a series of PFCs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) , perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorohexanoic acid. (PFHxA).
- C8 Health Project was initiated in 2005 as part of the settlement agreement in a class action lawsuit against DuPont. The C8 Science Panel, as part of the Project, will examine and analyze the health data collected by Brookmar, Inc. to determine whether the data suggest that C-8 exposure is related to disease.
- In 2008, European Union's European Food and Safety Authority published PFOS, PFOA, and Their Salts Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain , which set tolerable daily intake values for these PFCs.
- In 2000, OECD developed a Hazard Assessment of PFOS and Its Salts.
- In 2006, the OECD released the Results of the Survey the Production and Use of PFOS, PFOA, PFAS, PFCA, their Related Substances Chemicals and Products/Mixtures Containing these Substances .
- In 2006, OECD held a workshop on PFCs and precursors and published a Report of an OECD Workshop on Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAS) and Precursors in 2007.
- In December 2005, the Parties of LRTAP agreed that PFOS should be considered as a persistent organic pollutant (POPs). The convention is exploring management strategies through its Working Group on Strategies and Review .
- United Nations ECE published a 2006 report on existing information on PFOS production, use, emissions and pathways to the environment and cost/benefits with alternatives and substitutes (PDF) (7 pp., 45.9 KB)
- UNEP, in cooperation with U.S., hosted an International Workshop on Managing PFCs and Transitioning to Safer Alternatives on February 12-13, 2009.
- Sweden proposed the listing of PFOS and its precursors in Annex A of POPs in June 2005. The POPs Committee adopted the risk management evaluation for PFOS and decided to recommend to the Conference of the Parties (COP) that it would consider listing PFOS acid, its salts, and PFOS fluoride in Annex A or Annex B of the Convention.
- In May 2009, nine new chemicals were banned or restricted under Annex A of the POPs convention. Also, the production and use of PFOS, its salts, and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF) were restricted under Annex B. Read more information on the chemicals listed under Annex A and B.
- Australia's Department of Health's Aging National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme's (NICNAS) 2005 report on Existing Chemical Hazard Assessment Report for Potassium Perfluorobutance Sulfonate (PFBS) (PDF) (115 pp., 256 KB) provides an in depth analysis of PFBS effects on human health and the environment.
- NICNAS 2008 position paper regarding data requirements for notification of new chemical substances containing a perfluorinated carbon chain (PDF) (7 pp., 123 KB, outlines NICNAS' position on assessing potential health and environmental hazards for new chemicals containing a perfluorinated carbon chain.
- Health Canada's 1999 to 2002 report on the Occurrence, Fate and Effects of Fluorinated Surfactants in the Canadian Environment provides a greater understanding of how fluorinated surfactants act in the environment.
- In 2004, Environment Canada held the Workshop on the Environmental Fate of Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers (PDF) (31 pp., 1.32 MB) to discuss the scientific aspects regarding the environmental fate of fluorotelomer-based polymers and their degradation products.
- In 2006, Environment Canada released an ecological screening assessment report on the concentrations of PFOS in air, water, sediment, and biota.
- In 2008, Environment Canada began regulating and prohibiting the manufacture, use, sales, and offer for sale and import of PFOS in Canada.
- On September 30, 2010, Environment Canada added four new fluorotelomer-based substances to the Toxic Substances Schedule 1 Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999.
- On October 30, 2010, Environment Canada posted its decision to regulate long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the Canada Gazette.
- Danish Ministry of the Environment's 2005 report on more environmentally friendly alternatives to PFOS-compounds and PFOA describes the assessments for alternatives to PFOA and PFOS.
- Danish Ministry of the Environment also released a 2008 report on the survey and environmental/health assessment of fluorinated substances in impregnated consumer products and impregnating agency which updates the environmental health assessment of polyfluorinated substances and their degradation products from 2005.
- Norway's Pollution Control Agency (SFT) impact assessment of a proposal for prohibition of certain hazardous substances in consumer products (PDF) (50 pp., 234.41KB) describes PFOA and other chemicals' current uses and Norway's proposal for their regulation.
- 2004 report on Perfluorinated Alkylated Substances (PFAS) in the Nordic Environment (PDF) (107 pp., 1.44 KB) revealed that PFAS are found in sewage sludge, landfills, and marine mammals.
- 2007 report on PFOA in Norway (PDF) (77 pp., 1.56 MB) identifies possible user companies of PFOA in efforts to phase out their use by 2010.
- The Swedish Chemicals Agency 2006 report on Perfluorinated Substances and Their Use in Sweden (PDF) (60 pp., 417KB) identifies highly fluorinated compounds that are found in the environment, their use, and possible alternatives.
- The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's 2007 report from the Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) - Questions and Comments on Draft Risk Management for PFOS (PDF) (15 pp., 57.11KB) summarizes action on PFOS.
- United Kingdom's Committee on Toxicity (COT) 2006 statement on the tolerable daily intake for PFOA (PDF) (21 pp., 92.37 KB) determined the concentrations of PFOA in the 2004 Total Diet Study samples.
- The United Kingdom's Drinking Water Inspectorate's (DWI) 2007 Information Letter for the Guidance on Water Supply Regulations 2000/01 Specific to PFOS and PFOA Concentrations in Drinking Water addresses concerns regarding PFOS contamination of drinking water and provides guidance to drinking water companies on a precautionary basis.
- The United Kingdom's DWI 2007 Guidance on Water Supply Regulations 2000/01 specific to PFOS and PFOA Concentrations in Drinking Water (PDF) (13 pp., 137 KB) details the United Kingdom's action on PFOA in water to ensure the safety of drinking water.
- The United Kingdom's Food Standards Agency in 2009 released the results of retail samples of a variety of foods on sale in the UK analyzed for a range of fluorinated chemicals, including PFOS and PFOA.