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CTSA: Lithographic Blanket Washes - Contents

Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment (CTSA): Lithographic Blanket Washes

EPA 744-R-97-006
September 1997

Cover, Notice, Preface, and Acknowledgements [138 K pdf]

Cover [84 K pdf]

Notice, Preface, and Acknowledgements [58 K pdf]


Executive Summary [77 K pdf]


Chapter 1 Introduction [107 K pdf]

1.1 Project Background
1.1.1 Design for the Environment Lithographic Printing Partnership
1.1.2 Document Overview
1.1.3 DfE Lithographic Printing Partnership Methodology
1.2 Overview of Lithographic Printing
1.2.1 Products Printed
1.2.2 Printing Mechanism
1.2.3 Types of Lithography
1.2.4 Blanket Washing
1.3 Profile of the Blanket Wash Use Cluster
1.3.1 Traditional Blanket Washes
1.3.2 Alternative Blanket Washes
1.4 Market Profile
1.4.1 Blanket Wash Market
1.4.2 Blanket Wash Manufacturers
1.4.3 Blanket Wash Components
1.4.4 Market Conditions
1.5 Alternative Technology - Automatic Blanket Washers

Chapter 2 Data Collection [530 K pdf]

2.1 Categorization/Formulations [35 K pdf]
2.2 Chemical Information [380 K pdf]
2.2.1 Chemical Properties and Information
2.2.2 Safety Hazard Factors
2.2.3 Chemical Properties and Information Summaries
2.3 Human Health Hazard Information [169 K pdf]
2.4 Environmental Hazard Information [168 K pdf]
2.4.1 Methodology
2.4.2 Results
2.5 Federal Regulatory Status [114 K pdf]
2.6 Safety Hazard by Formulation [55 K pdf]

Chapter 3 Risk [334 K pdf]

3.1 Environmental Release Estimates [72 K pdf]
3.2 Occupational Exposure Estimates [94 K pdf]
3.3 General Population Exposure Estimates [120 K pdf]
3.4 Risk Characterization [142 K pdf]
3.4.1 Background
3.4.2 Ecological Risk
3.4.3 Occupational Risks
3.4.4 General Population Risks
3.5 Process Safety Concerns [50 K pdf]

Chapter 4 Competitiveness [740 K pdf]

4.1 Performance Data [339 K pdf]
4.1.1 Background
4.1.2 Methodology
4.1.3 Data Collection, Summary and Analysis
4.1.4 Limitations
4.1.5 Blanket Wash Summaries
4.2 Blanket Wash Cost Analysis Methodology [433 K pdf]
4.2.1 General Description of Costing Methodology
4.2.2 Details Related to Data Sources and Methodological Approach
4.2.3 Example Calculation
4.2.4 Blanket Wash Cost Analysis Results
4.3 International Trade Issues [45 K pdf]
4.3.1 International Trade of Petroleum-based Blanket Washes
4.3.2 International Trade of "Low VOC" Blanket Washes
4.3.3 Joint Ventures Impacting the International Trade of Blanket Washes

Chapter 5 Conservation [35 K pdf]

5.1 Energy and Resource Conservation During the Blanket Washing Process
5.2 Energy and Resource Conservation Based on Chemical Composition, Formulations and Packaging
5.3 Comparison of Life-Cycle Trade-Off Issues

Chapter 6 Additional Improvement Opportunitites [80 K pdf]

6.1 Pollution Prevention Opportunities
6.1.1 Summary of Responses to Workplace Practices Questionnaire
6.1.2 Workplace Practices
6.1.3 Conclusions
6.2 Recycle Opportunities
6.2.1 Solvent Recovery from Press Wipes
6.2.2 Methods of Solvent Recycling

Chapter 7 Evaluating Trade-off Issues [372 K pdf]

7.1 Findings [68 K pdf]
7.2 Qualitative Discussion of Benefit/Cost Analysis [120 K pdf]
7.2.1 Introduction
7.2.2 Benefit/Cost Methodology
7.2.3 Potential Benefits
7.2.4 Associated Costs
7.2.5 Costs and Benefits by Formulation
7.2.6 Potential Benefit of Avoiding Illness Linked to Exposure to Chemicals Commonly Used in Blanket Washing
7.3 Overview of Risk, Cost and Performance [242 K pdf]

Appendices [142 K pdf]

Appendix A. Environmental Hazard Assessment Methodology

Appendix B. Exposure Assessment Calculations

Appendix C. Lithographic Performance Demonstration Methodology

Appendix D. Performance Demonstration Observer Sheets

Appendix E. Categorization for Lithographic Blanket Washes

Appendix F. Cost of Illness Valuation Methods


The Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Lithographic Blanket Washes in its entirety. [71K pdf file]

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