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Solders in Electronics: A Life-Cycle Assessment

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This life-cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the potential environmental impacts of selected lead-free solders as alternatives to tin-lead solder. LCAs, which are generally global and non-site specific in scope, look at the full life cycle of the product being evaluated, from materials acquisition to manufacturing, use, and end-of-life (i.e., final disposition). This LCA assessed impacts related to material consumption, energy use, air resources, water resources, landfills, human toxicity, and ecological toxicity. The partnership also investigated leachability and recycling of solders at the end of their lives. The solders evaluated were: tin/lead, tin/copper, tin/silver/copper, bismuth/tin/silver, tin/silver/bismuth/copper.

Please note: This document's PDFs are not Section 508 compliant. Please contact Kathy Hart (202-564-8787, hart.kathy@epa.gov) or Clive Davies (202-564-3821, davies.clive@epa.gov) if you need assistance with this document.

Download LCA Summary Document:

Solders in Electronics: A Life-Cycle Assessment Summary (PDF, 3.6MB, 51 Pages)

Download Complete Document:

Solders in Electronics: A Life-Cycle Assessment (PDF, 3.53 MB, 472 pages)

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