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Resources

 
Pollution Prevention Websites
 

EPA's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT)

OPPT works to promote pollution prevention both inside and outside of EPA. This is done in several ways, such as by using voluntary pollution reduction programs, engaging in partnerships, providing technical assistance, funding demonstration projects, and incorporating cost-effective pollution prevention alternatives into regulations and other initiatives.

OPPT maintains a list of pollution prevention websites.

P2Workshop

P2Workshop is an open internet-based workshop on pollution prevention. The mission of P2Workshop is "to facilitate the development and incorporation of pollution prevention instructional material in engineering curricula in higher education." The P2Workshop internet site serves as a repository for recently-developed curricular materials, such as course syllabi, instruction modules, problem sets and solutions, process design and evaluation software, and other curricular components. The internet site also provides links to other sources of P2 curriculum development information.

The P2 Framework

The P2 Framework is an approach to risk screening that incorporates pollution prevention principles in the design and development of chemicals. The objective of the P2 Framework approach is to inform decision making at early stages of development and promote the selection and application of safer chemicals and processes.This site includes a link to a PDF file of the P2 Framework manual. This user-friendly manual provides details on how to use the physical property and exposure assessment models mentioned on this website including ECOSAR, OncoLogic, and EPI SUITE TM . The importance of the output of each assessment methodology is discussed, and case studies illustrating how the tools can be used in combination for risk management and pollution prevention strategies are provided.

 
Additional Web Resources
 

Exposure Assessment Tools and Models
US EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics

OPPT’s Exposure, Assessment Tools and Models website contains several exposure assessment methods, databases, and predictive models to help in evaluating what happens to chemicals when they are used and released to the environment; and how workers, the general public, consumers, and the aquatic ecosystems may be exposed to chemicals. This site includes links to UCSS, ChemSTEER, EPI SuiteTM, and other software. EPI SuiteTM estimates physical/chemical properties as described in Chapter 5 of this textbook, environmental fate and transport, and includes estimation programs for LogKOW, KOC, Atmospheric Oxidation Potential, Henry's Law Constant, Water Solubility, Melting Point, Boiling Point, Vapor Pressure, Biodegradation, Bioconcentration Factor, Hydrolysis, Sewage Treatment Plant Removal, Fugacity Modeling, and Multimedia Modeling. ECOSAR, Dermwin, and SMILESCAS database are also included.

Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors (CHIEF)
US EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
Technology Transfer Network

The CHIEF site provides access to the Emission Inventory Improvement Program document series, the emissions modeling clearinghouse, the PM2.5 Inventory Resource Center, and information on the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criteria and toxic pollutants. This site includes a free downloadable version of the TANKS software, information about the Air CHIEF software, and links to AP-42 emission factors and L & E documents. FIRE, another EFIG (Emission Factor and Inventory Group) software product contains AP-42 emission factors and can be downloaded off the web page. More information on specific software is available in the Software section of Appendix F.

Locating and Estimating (L & E) Documents
US EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
Technology Transfer Network
Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors (CHIEF)

This report series, titled Locating and Estimating Air Toxic Emissions from Sources of (source category or substance) characterizes the source categories for which emissions of a toxic substance have been identified. These volumes include general descriptions of the emitting processes, identifying potential release points and emission factors.

Systems Analysis Branch (SAB)
US EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD)

The SAB's research programs in pollution prevention, life cycle assessment, and computer tooling develop and demonstrate cost-effective decision-making tools. Such tools integrate environmental solutions, life cycle concepts, value engineering, environmental engineering, economics, trade-offs and pollution prevention factors. ORD has CRADAs involving both WAR and PARIS II. This website includes information on WAR.

SMILES Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry System Tutorial
US EPA Office of Research and Development
National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory

SMILES notation is used in EPI Suite models. SMILES (Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry System) is a chemical notation that allows a user to represent a chemical structure in a way that can be used by the computer.

Enviro$en$e
US EPA

Enviro$en$e provides a single repository for pollution prevention, compliance assurance, and enforcement information and databases. The Enviro$en$e website includes a link to Solvent Substitution Data Systems (SSDS).

Terminology Reference System (TRS)
US EPA Environmental Information Office

The EPA Terminology Reference System (TRS) has been created as a single resource of environmental terminology for the Agency by compiling collections of terms from EPA and other sources.

TRI (Toxics Release Inventory)
US EPA Environmental Information Office

This publicly accessible toxic chemical database known as the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) contains information concerning waste management activities and the release of toxic chemicals by facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use said materials.

AIChE CWRT Total Cost Assessment Manual (TCA) exit EPA disclaimer

The Center for Waste Reduction Technologies provides access to technologies and management tools supporting sustainable growth, environmental stewardship, and Responsible Care®. The TCA provides an approach to analyze life cycle costs and benefits related to industrial environmental safety and health issues.

AIChE Design Institute for Physical Property Data (DIPPR) exit EPA disclaimer

DIPPR develops and evaluates physical and environmental property data. This website includes information on various DIPPR projects including Project 911, Environmental, Safety and Health (ESH) Data Compilation. The goal of DIPPR
Project 911 is to develop a comprehensive, critically evaluated database of regulated chemical species that are important to the chemical process industry. Michigan Technological University is coordinating this project.

Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study exit EPA disclaimer

The environmentally important properties of HCFCs and HFCs were reviewed by the Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) in 1989. This site provides the results of this study.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) exit EPA disclaimer

This organization publishes workplace chemical exposure concentration limits, Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), which are voluntary, unlike the legally enforceable OSHA PELs. The documentation for the TLVs contains detailed information on the relevant toxicity and exposure concerns related to each chemical with an established TLV.

ChemAlliance Regulatory Tour exit EPA disclaimer

ChemAlliance supplies regulatory information to the chemical process industry. This site provides an overview of environmental regulations and what each law requires.

MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets

There are many sources for MSDS information on the Internet. The two listed here provide a good starting point. The first site offers general information about MSDS and links to other sites that contain MSDS. The second site contains a searchable online database of MSDS.
http://www.ilpi.com/msds/ exit EPA disclaimer
http://hazard.com/msds/ exit EPA disclaimer

NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health exit EPA disclaimer

This organization performs research for OSHA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The website includes links to databases including the NIOSH Pocket Guide. This resource provides general safety and health information, some chemical properties, OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit concentrations, or PELs, and NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit concentrations, or RELs.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory exit EPA disclaimer

The Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration conducts research related to atmospheric constituents that are capable of forcing change in the climate of the Earth or that may deplete the ozone layer. CMDL monitors greenhouse gases, aerosols, ozone, ozone-depleting gases and solar and terrestrial radiation at global sites including four Baseline Observatories.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) exit EPA disclaimer
US Department of Labor

OSHA's mission is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths. This website includes OSHA facts and history, programs and services, information on state plans, and federal regulation citations. Regulatory citations include PELs (Permissible Exposure Limits), which are the legally enforceable workplace chemical exposure limits promulgated by OSHA.

Center for Sustainable Systems (CSS) exit EPA disclaimer
University of Michigan

CSS, formerly the National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education, develops life cycle based models and sustainability metrics to evaluate the performance and to guide the continuous improvement of industrial systems for meeting societal needs. This site includes online resources, papers, and projects.

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) exit EPA disclaimer

The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a coalition of 150 international companies united by a shared commitment to sustainable development. The organization pursues this goal via the three pillars of economic growth, environmental protection and social equity. This site includes individual cases studies in sustainable development.

 
Online Databases
 

Chemical Health and Safety Data exit EPA disclaimer
National Toxicology Program (NTP)

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has collected health and safety information on thousands of chemicals. This database includes CAS numbers, and primary synonyms for individual chemicals.

Coating Alternative Guide (CAGE) exit EPA disclaimer

Coatings GuideTM is a pollution prevention tool for paints and coatings users. The Coatings GuideTM contains several tools to help users identify low-volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant coatings that may serve as drop-in replacements for existing coating operations.

The Cumulative Exposure Project – Toxicity Database

This database is a compilation of toxicity data from federal and state agencies for contaminants that were considered in EPA's Cumulative Exposure Project. The database is an extensive compilation of both quantitative data, including peer-reviewed benchmark values and values derived from the primary literature, and qualitative information on health effects (e.g. identification of a HAP as a potential human carcinogen). The database contains a user-friendly interface designed to provide quick and easy access to desired health effects information.

ECOTOX Database System
US EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD)
National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL)

The ECOTOXicology database is a source for locating single chemical toxicity data for aquatic life, terrestrial plants and wildlife. ECOTOX integrates three toxicology effects databases: AQUIRE (aquatic life), PHYTOTOX (terrestrial plants), and TERRETOX (terrestrial wildlife).

Envirofacts
US EPA Office of Environmental Information

This website provides access to several EPA databases that provide you with information about environmental activities that may affect air, water, and land anywhere in the United States.

Environmental Fate Database exit EPA disclaimer
Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC)

As co developer of EPI SuiteTM Syracuse Research Corporation has data on many chemical properties relevant to environmental fate.

Enviro$en$e Solvent Substitution Data Systems
US EPA

This web page contains links to several databases, including the Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System (ISSDS), the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), and the Solvents Database (SOLV-DB).

The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) exit EPA disclaimer

The Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB®) from the National Library of Medicine is a toxicology data file that focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced with information on human exposure, industrial hygiene, emergency handling procedures, environmental fate, regulatory requirements, and related areas.

Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants
US EPA Office of Air and Radiation
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards

The Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants includes data such as LC50s, Threshold Limit Values and Permissible Exposure Levels for approximately 200 chemicals.

IRIS Integrated Risk Information System
US EPA Office of Research and Development
National Center for Environmental Assessment

IRIS is a database of human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances found in the environment. Data, analysis, and uncertainty characterizations are provided for hundreds of common chemicals.

ISSDS Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System exit EPA disclaimer

ISSDS facilitates access to solvent alternative information from multiple data systems through a single, easy to use command structure. The data collections available under ISSDS include SAGE, HSSDS, CAGE, and Pollution Prevention Case Studies.

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards exit EPA disclaimer

The Pocket Guide includes safety information, some chemical properties, OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit concentrations, or PELs, and NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit concentrations, or RELs.

SAGE Solvent Alternative Guide exit EPA disclaimer

SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE can also be found on Enviro$en$e Solvent Substitution Data System
http://es.epa.gov/ssds/ssds.html exit EPA disclaimer.

SOLV-DB exit EPA disclaimer
National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS)

The Solvent Database includes data on physical and chemical properties, environmental fate and regulation of solvents.

TOXNET exit EPA disclaimer

TOXNET is a cluster of databases available from the National Library of Medicine on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, and related areas. Both IRIS and the HSDB are available through TOXNET.

TRIAGE Chemical Studies Database
US EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics

This is a searchable database of scientific studies on the health and environmental effects of chemicals.

 
Software
 

Air CHIEF

The Air ClearingHouse for Inventories and Emission Factors CD-ROM gives users access to air emission data specific to estimating the types and quantities of pollutants that may be emitted from a wide variety of sources. Updated annually, Air CHIEF contains pages from EPA’s most widely used documents as well as the US EPA’s Emission Factor and Inventory Group’s emission estimation tools. Information on Air CHIEF and how to order it in CD-ROM format is available under the Software and Tools link on the EPA’s TTN CHIEF page.

ChemSTEER

The Chemical Screening Tool for Exposures and Environmental Releases is a personal computer-based software program that uses the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics’ most current workplace exposure and release assessment methods. The tool generates screening-level estimates of environmental releases of and worker exposures to a chemical manufactured and used in industrial and commercial workplaces. A draft version of ChemSTEER is currently available.

ECOSAR (Ecological Structure Activity Relationships)

ECOSAR estimates the toxicity of chemicals used in industry and discharged into water. The program predicts the toxicity of industrial chemicals to aquatic organisms such as fish, invertebrates, and algae by using Structure Activity Relationships (SARs). The program estimates a chemical's acute (short-term) toxicity and, when available, chronic (long-term or delayed) toxicity.

E-FAST (Exposure & Fate Assessment Screening Tool)

E-FAST provides screening-level estimates of the concentrations of chemicals released to air, surface water, landfills, and from consumer products. Estimates provided are potential inhalation, dermal and ingestion dose rates resulting from these releases. Modeled estimates of concentrations and doses are designed to reasonably overestimate exposures, for use in screening level assessment.

EFRAT (Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment Tool)

EFRAT is a process design software tool to estimate environmental and health impacts of chemical process design options through a combination of screening-level fate and transport calculations and risk assessment indices. EFRAT is intended to be used for the evaluation of a chemical process flowsheet in conjunction with a commercial chemical process simulator (e.g. HYSYS). Information on EFRAT is available from the Green Engineering website and the following link.

EPI Suite TM

The EPI (estimation program interface) SuiteTM is a Windows® based suite of physical/chemical property and environmental fate estimation models developed by the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics and Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC). EPI Suite uses a single input for a chemical's structure to run the following estimation models: KOWWIN, AOPWIN, HENRYWINTM, MPBPWIN, BIOWIN, PCKOCWIN, WSKOWWIN, BCFWIN, HYDROWIN, STPWIN, WVOLWIN, and LEV3EPI. These models can be divided into two categories, models to estimate physical-chemical properties and models to estimate environmental fate. EPI Suite also includes the SMILESCAS database, which allows the user to input either in SMILES (Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry System) notation, or using a CAS number.

These models within EPI Suite can be used to estimate environmental fate:

 
 

BCFWIN. This program calculates the BioConcentration Factor and its logarithm from the log Kow. The methodology is analogous to that for

WSKOWWIN. Both are based on log Kow and correction factors.

HENRYWIN. Calculates the Henry’s Law constant (air/water partition coefficient) using both the group contribution and the bond contribution methods.

KOWWIN. Estimates the log octanol-water partition coefficient, log Kow, of chemicals using an atom/fragment contribution method.

MPBPWIN. Melting point, boiling point, and vapor pressure of organic chemicals are estimated using a combination of techniques.

PCKOCWIN. The ability of a chemical to sorb to soil and sediment, its soil adsorption coefficient (Koc), is estimated by this program.

WSKOWWIN. Estimates an octanol-water partition coefficient using the algorithms in the KOWWINTM program and estimates a chemical’s water solubility from this value. This method uses correction factors to modify the water solubility estimate based on regression against log Kow.

 
 

These models can be used to estimate physical/chemical properties:

 
 

AOPWIN. Estimates the gas-phase reaction rate for the reaction between the most prevalent atmospheric oxidant, hydroxyl radicals, and a chemical.
BIOWIN. Estimates aerobic biodegradability of organic chemicals using 6 different models.

HYDROWIN. Estimates Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis constants for specific organic classes. A chemical’s hydrolytic half-life under typical environmental conditions is also determined.

LEV3EPI. This level III fugacity model predicts partitioning of chemicals between air, soil, sediment, and water under steady state conditions for a default model "environment"; various defaults can be changed by the user.

STPWIN. Using several outputs from EPIWIN, this program predicts the removal of a chemical in a Sewage Treatment Plant; values are given for the total removal and three contributing processes (biodegradation, sorption to sludge, and stripping to air.) for a standard system and set of operating conditions.

WVOLWIN. Estimates the rate of volatilization of a chemical from rivers and lakes; calculates the half-life for these two processes from their rates. The model makes certain default assumptions-water body depth; wind velocity; etc.

 
 

A downloadable version of EPI Suite is available on the Exposure Assessment Tools and Models website.

FIRE Factor Information Retrieval Data System

The Factor Information Retrieval Data System is a database management system containing EPA’s recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and hazardous air pollutants. FIRE includes information about industry emissions and emission factors including AP-42. FIRE is available under the Software and Tools link on the EPA’s TTN CHIEF Page.

Mackay Level III Version 2.70 exit EPA disclaimer

This model gives a description of a chemical's fate in the environment including the important degradation and advection losses and the intermedia transport processes. Physical-chemical properties are used to quantify a chemical's behavior in an evaluative environment. This Level III simulation is based on the publication by Mackay, Donald (1991) "Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach" Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Information on this program and a free downloadable version is available at this site.

OncoLogic

OncoLogic predicts the potential carcinogenicity of chemicals by applying the rules of structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, and incorporating what is known about mechanisms of action and human epidemiological studies. A free downloadable DOS version of the software is available.

PARIS II exit EPA disclaimer

PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents) is a program incorporating solvent design. The solvent design capability allows the user to match or to enhance desirable solvent properties while simultaneously suppressing undesirable ones such as, for example, toxicity. The composition is manipulated by a solvent search algorithm aided by a library of routines with the latest fluid property prediction techniques, and by another library of routines for calculating solvent performance requirements. The program contains a database of solvents, and lists of solvent properties and solvent performance requirements. PARIS II was developed within EPA/ORD and is being marketed through a CRADA between EPA/ORD and Technical Database Services, Inc. A Demo version is available under the link for PARIS II.

TANKS

TANKS is a program that estimates emissions from the two major loss mechanisms, working and standing losses, for the four major types of storage tanks, fixed-roof, floating roof, variable-vapor-space, and pressurized tanks.
TANKS is available under the Software and Tools link on the EPA’s TTN CHIEF Page.

UCSS

Use Clusters Scoring System identifies and screens clusters of chemicals (“use clusters”) that are used to perform a particular task. A use cluster is a set of chemicals that may be substituted for one another in performing a given task. It also identifies clusters of potential concern and provides an initial ranking of chemicals using human and environmental hazard and exposure data from a number of sources.

WAR WAste Reduction Algorithm

The method is based on a potential environmental impact balance for chemical processes. Potential environmental impact index is defined as the environmental and human health impact of the waste produced per unit time or mass of a product. This index is used to provide a relative, quantitative measure of the impact of the generated waste within a chemical process; this measure is then compared to indexes from other possible designs for the same chemical process to arrive at an environmentally friendly design for the process. This program was developed within EPA/ORD. WAR software is being developed and marketed under a CRADA between EPA/ORD and Horizon Technologies.

 
Reference Books
 

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. This reference contains useful physical/chemcial property data including information on the toxicity and hazards of many chemicals. It is published by CRC Press.

Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice. This book is widely accepted as a guide for official agencies, a standard for ventilation designers, and as a textbook for industrial hygiene courses. It is published by the Americal Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemcial Technology. This is a useful reference when looking for information on physical and chemcial properties, manufacturing methods, Hhealth and safety, typical uses, and, most importantly, economic aspects This book consists of several volumes and is published by John Wiley & Sons.

Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. This book is valuable for readers who want more than quantitative exposure limits, but who don’t aspire to become amateur toxicologists. It consists of several volumes, one of which is "Toxicology." It is published by John Wiley & Sons.

Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook. This book has long been considered the standard in the field because of its comprehensive coverage of data, methods and equipment design. It also includes new developments, achievements, design alternatives and advancements in chemical engineering. It is published by McGraw-Hill.

Toxicology, the Basic Science of Poisons. This is Casarett and Doull’s classic text in the field for interested readers. It is published by Macmillan and is updated every few years. (See Toxicology, the Basic Science of Poisons. Casarett and Doull, fifth Edition, Macmillan Publishing co., New York, 1995).

 

 


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