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Octachlorostyrene

Note: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.


 
   


Chemical Profile Available

Draft PBT National Action Plan for Octachlorostyrene

Prepared by:
The US EPA Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Pollutants (PBT)
OCS Work Group

June 22, 2000

DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE WORKING DRAFT


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary

1.0 Background
2.0 PBT Chemical Profile
  2.1 Description
  2.2 Environmental Impacts
  2.3 Exposure and Health Effects
  2.4 Sources and Sectors
  2.5 Sensitive Subpopulations and Geographic Areas
  2.6 Current Activities
  2.7 Source/Sector Links with Other Chemicals
3.0 Goals
  3.1 Relevant GPRA Goals
  3.2 Goals for Octachlorostyrene
4.0 Strategic Approach
5.0 Measures of Progress
6.0 Key Actions
7.0 Reporting Progress
  7.1 Reporting Procedure
  7.2 Reporting Schedule
8.0 References

Glossary

Appendix A: List of Key Contacts and Action Planning Matrix


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Sources of OCS Reported in the Literature
Table 2. Source/Sector Links with Other Chemicals
Table 3. Measures of Progress and GPRA Goals for Actions to Reduce Risks from OCS


Executive Summary

On November 16, 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its Agency-wide Multimedia Strategy for Priority Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) Pollutants (PBT Strategy). The goal of the PBT Strategy is to identify and reduce risks to human health and the environment from current and future exposure to priority PBT pollutants. This document serves as the Draft National Action Plan for octachlorostyrene (OCS), one of the 12 Level 1 priority PBT pollutants identified for the initial focus of action in the PBT Strategy.

OCS is primarily of concern due to its persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment, and its toxicity to aquatic organisms. Little is known about its potential human toxicological effects. OCS is not commercially manufactured but has been reported to be an inadvertent byproduct of processes that combine carbon and chlorine at high temperatures. Some of these processes include magnesium production, commercial production of chlorinated solvents, aluminum plasma etching (used in producing microelectronic components), aluminum degassing with hexachloroethane, chlorination of titanium and niobium/tantalum ores, waste incineration, and chlor-alkali production with graphite anodes. Limited data on the occurrence of OCS in the environment indicate that OCS has been released, in the past, from sources along the St. Clair and Niagara Rivers, Lake Erie, the Gulf coast of Texas, and southern Louisiana. Current monitoring of OCS levels in herring gull eggs collected from Great Lakes colonies indicates levels of OCS are declining in the Great Lakes.

Because of the limited data on sources and levels of emissions of OCS, combined with the fact that what information EPA does have suggests that levels in the environment are low and may be declining, the strategic approach of the action plan is to develop a better understanding of OCS sources, releases, and potential for exposure, and to promote voluntary pollution prevention efforts where appropriate. Key actions identified to implement the strategic approach include:

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1.0 Background

On November 16, 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its Agency-wide Multimedia Strategy for Priority Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) Pollutants (PBT Strategy). EPA has a long history of successful programs in controlling PBT pollutants -- pollutants that are toxic, persist in the environment, and bioaccumulate in food chains, and thus pose risks to human health and ecosystems. The challenges remaining for PBT pollutants stem from the fact that they transfer rather easily among air, water, and land, and span boundaries of programs, geography, and generations, making single-statute approaches less than the full solution to reducing these risks. To achieve further reductions, a multimedia approach is necessary. Accordingly, through the PBT Strategy, EPA has committed to create an enduring cross-office system that would address the cross-media issues associated with priority PBT pollutants.

The goal of the PBT Strategy is to identify and reduce risks to human health and the environment from current and future exposure to priority PBT pollutants. To attain this goal, EPA has identified several guiding principles:

The PBT Strategy outlines an approach to achieving PBT risk reductions which includes the development and implementation of national action plans for priority PBT pollutants. These action plans will draw upon the full array of EPA’s statutory authorities and national programs, building on work initiated under the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy and using regulatory action where voluntary efforts are insufficient. The action plans will consider enforcement and compliance, international coordination, place-based remediation of existing PBT contamination, research, technology development and monitoring, community and sector-based projects, the use of outreach and public advisories, and opportunities to integrate efforts across chemicals. This document serves as the Draft National Action Plan for octachlorostyrene (OCS), one of the 12 Level 1 priority PBT pollutants identified for the initial focus of action in the PBT Strategy.

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2.0 PBT Chemical Profile

2.1 Description

Octachlorostyrene (CAS Registry number 29082-74-4) is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic halogenated aromatic compound. OCS is not commercially manufactured, but has been reported to be an inadvertent by-product of processes which combine carbon and chlorine, under elevated temperatures. Some of these past formative circumstances have ended; others may have ended in the U.S., though at least one (electrolytic magnesium production) is ongoing. OCS may also result from various incineration processes.

Concern over the occurrence of OCS in the environment is driven by two main factors: its persistence (i.e., its resistance to chemical and/or metabolic degradation) and its high bioaccumulation potential (i.e., increase in concentration in higher order wildlife of an aquatic food web). Studies of potential human toxicological effects are few, because OCS was never an intentionally produced product, for which such studies would be commissioned. However, EPA believes that since OCS is structurally similar to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in its aromaticity and degree of chlorination, it can reasonably be anticipated to have a similar toxicological profile (Federal Register, 1999a).

2.2 Environmental Impacts

OCS is bioaccumulative in aquatic food webs. Due to its low water solubility, OCS will tend to rapidly partition from water and bind to sediments and suspended solids. Bioconcentration through direct uptake may be an important mechanism in aquatic species. In an area polluted by industrial effluents (Ofstad et al., 1978) and in an area in which OCS-containing emissions were released to the atmosphere (Dethlefsen et al., 1996), fish were shown to accumulate OCS in their tissue. The feeding habits of aquatic species have also been shown to be an important influence on OCS levels in fish, with significant biomagnification seen in higher order species. Adverse liver, thyroid, kidney and hematological effects are found in experimental animals exposed to OCS.

Among its potential diverse adverse effects, OCS has the potential to interfere with metabolism in fish and to inhibit photosynthesis in algae. EPA has determined that "aquatic toxicity values indicate that octachlorosytrene is toxic at relatively low concentrations and thus is highly toxic to aquatic organisms" (Federal Register, 1999a). EPA believes that sufficient evidence exists to list OCS as a toxic chemical, under section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA), that can reasonably be anticipated to cause a significant adverse effect on the environment (Federal Register, 1999b).

Measurements of OCS in sediments and fish from the early to mid-1980s indicate that OCS was released to the environment from industrial sources in the Sarnia area of Ontario along the St. Clair River (Pugsley et al., 1985), on the Niagara River leading to Lake Ontario (Jaffe & Hites, 1986; Suns & Hitchin, 1992; Suns et al., 1983), in Lake Erie at the mouth of the Ashtabula River (Kuehl et al., 1981), in the Gulf coast of Texas (Kuehl and Haebler, 1995; Kuehl and Butterworth, 1994), and in the Bayou d’Inde area of southern Louisiana (Pereira et al., 1988). Lesser concentrations measured in Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, and central and western Lake Erie (Pugsley et al.,1985; Oliver & Bourbonniere, 1985) may indicate water-borne dispersion from sources and/or long range atmospheric transport and deposition.

Temporal data on OCS levels in the environment are limited. Studies of OCS levels in Lake Ontario sediments show a substantial decline in OCS concentrations since the 1970's (Kaminsky and Hites, 1984; Durham and Oliver, 1983). OCS in herring gull eggs collected as part of an ongoing monitoring program through the Canadian Wildlife Service also showed declines at all 15 colonies within the Great Lakes from 1987 to 1998 (CGLI, 1999).

Looking beyond the Great Lakes, a National Study of Chemical Residues in Fish conducted by EPA between 1986 and 1989 detected OCS in fish tissue at 9% of nearly 400 sites sampled. The mean concentration of OCS at sites where it was detected was 1.7 ng/g (USEPA, 1992). The four highest concentrations were found in fish obtained from Bayou d’Inde, Louisiana (138 ng/g); Freeport, Texas (65.3 ng/g); River Rouge, Michigan (50.7 ng/g); and Olcott, New York (49.6 ng/g) (Anscombe, 1999).

2.3 Exposure and Health Effects

Potential human exposure pathways for OCS are through ingestion (especially of contaminated fish), inhalation, and absorption through the skin. Occupational  exposure has been shown to result in elevated levels of OCS in the blood of workers at industrial facilities where OCS is a by-product (Selden et al., 1997). OCS has been found in the blood of humans ingesting contaminated fish, and in the breast milk of non-occupationally exposed women (HSDB, 1999).

The human toxicological properties of OCS are not well known. In laboratory animals, acute toxicity studies showed histological changes in liver, kidney and thyroid tissues, deemed "moderate to severe" for the liver, but the impairment in function was not well quantified. Its similarity to the carcinogens hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobutadiene is further cause for concern and suggests the need for additional testing. OCS may act as a "promoter" of mutagenicity, and thus also as a promoter of carcinogenicity (Holme and Dybing, 1982). EPA has developed and begun implementing a screening program for estrogenic substances to determine the relationship between exposure to suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals and associated adverse effects in humans. Suspected substances, including OCS, have been slated for testing under the endocrine screening program. Endocrine disrupting chemicals are thought to harm male and female reproductive systems, cause thyroid damage, cause a range of other problems affecting developing fetuses and newborns, including low IQs and genital malformations, cause low sperm counts and infertility, and possibly also cause cancer (Federal Register, 1997).

Health Canada has established a Minimum Risk Intake for OCS from food of 0.31 µg/kg bodyweight/day (Health Canada, 1998).

In its recent action of adding OCS (along with several other chemicals) to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) as a reportable chemical, EPA found that "all of the chemicals proposed for addition were found to be reasonably anticipated to cause serious or irreversible chronic human health effects at relatively low doses or ecotoxicity at relatively low concentrations, and thus are considered to have moderately high to high chronic toxicity or high ecotoxicity" (Federal Register, 1999b).

2.4 Sources and Sectors

Prior to the addition of OCS to the TRI program, there were no regulatory requirements governing OCS release reporting. Therefore, a comprehensive emissions inventory of source categories has never been undertaken. Emissions test data are extremely limited. Measurements of OCS in the waste, effluent, or emissions of a few industrial processes have been reported. Table 1 lists industries and processes that have been reportedly associated with generation of OCS. In some cases the processes have changed, and current practices may no longer favor OCS formation. In other cases, it is unknown whether processes have changed. In at least one instance (electrolytic extraction of magnesium including high temperature chlorine/carbon purification), it is reasonable, based on chlorinated dioxin/furan generation, to infer that OCS is being generated. As stated by Oehme et al.(1989), "Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), octachlorostyrene and other highly chlorinated compounds are formed under similar conditions as PCDD/PCDF [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans], and their presence in the emissions of a technical process should therefore be a good indicator for reaction mechanisms which may also create PCDD/PCDF." There may be other potential sources of OCS that can be inferred by virtue of their status as a source of PCDD/PCDF or HCB, or by reported measurements of OCS in the environment, or similarity of process and available precursors that are known to favor OCS formation.

It should be noted that significant recent advances have been made in process technology and pollution prevention practices in some of these industries, and that listing here does not mean that these are necessarily current sources of OCS. Industry associations for chlorine and aluminum producers, for example, have reported that major changes have taken place to largely eliminate the electrolytic manufacture of chlorine, and aluminum degassing with hexachloroethane, both of which were known sources of OCS (see stakeholder comments in response to Draft EPA OCS Challenge Report).

2.5 Sensitive Subpopulations and Geographic Areas

Pregnant women (i.e., the developing embryo and fetus) and subsistence and sport fishermen may be suspected as sensitive subpopulations. Exposure to OCS from contaminated fish may be of particular concern for mothers who breast feed. Accumulation of OCS in a mother’s breast milk, and its consumption as potentially the sole source of nutrition by the infant, may result in increased exposure for infants under six months of age (Mes et al., 1993). EPA’s 1992 National Study of Chemical Residues in Fish identifies Bayou D’Inde and the Calcasieu River in Louisiana; Freeport, Texas; River Rouge, Michigan; Tacoma, Washington; and several sites in New York around Lake Ontario as sites of highest OCS contamination (Anscombe, 1999).

Table 1. Sources of OCS Reported in the Literature1

Industry Industrial Process Literature Reference
Magnesium Production Purification of magnesium with chlorine and carbon under high temperature, plus electrolytic separation of magnesium from chlorine with graphite electrodes Lunde & Bjorseth 1977; Oehme et al. 1989
Chlorinated Solvents Commercial production of carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene Otero & Grimalt 1994; King & Sherbin 1986; Markovec & Magee 1984; Durham & Oliver 1983
Semiconductor/ Microelectronics Aluminum plasma etching with chlorinated solvents Schmidt et al. 1995; Raabe et al. 1993
Secondary Aluminum/Metal Alloy Casting Aluminum degassing with hexachloroethane Westberg et al. 1997; Selden et al. 1997; Vogelgesang 1986
Niobium and Tantalum Ore extraction with chlorine Vogelgesang 1986
Titanium Chlorination of titanium ore or chlorine regeneration from MgCl2 Vogelgesang 1986
Incineration Incomplete combustion of chlorinated compounds Ahling et al. 1978; Lahaniatis et al. 1989
Chlor-alkali/Chlorine Production with Graphite Anodes Electrolytic separation of chlorine from brine using graphite electrodes, no longer in use today Kaminsky & Hites 1984; Svensson et al. 1993
Primary and Secondary Copper Smelting Chlorinating roasting process not used in the U.S.; Recycling of scrap copper Döring et al. 1992

2.6 Current Activities

Regulations

Under the Great Lakes Water Quality Guidance, EPA determined that OCS was a Bioaccumulative Chemical of Concern. The Guidance provides methodologies for the Great Lakes States and Tribes to adopt water quality standards and enforceable controls on discharges of pollutants (Federal Register,1995). EPA has also listed OCS under the Clean Water Act as one of the 29 high priority chemicals for development or revision of water quality criteria on the basis of its bioaccumulation potential and toxicity (Federal Register, 1998). Solid wastes and air emissions of OCS are not regulated specifically. However, since OCS is co-generated with other chlorinated hydrocarbons for which there are specific regulations, such as PCDD/PCDF and HCB, regulations pertaining to these substances would have the effect of governing OCS as well.

The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Water, has recommended an ambient water quality value for OCS of 0.2 µg/L for drinking water intake, and an ambient water quality value of 6 x 10-6 µg/L for fish consumption.

Under an amendment to TRI published in the Federal Register as a final rule on October 29, 1999, OCS was added to the TRI list of reportable chemicals, with a reporting threshold of 10 pounds per year. Under this program, if affected facilities do not test their effluent, they are required to develop a reasonable estimate, based on available data, for reporting to TRI. The new rule becomes effective with the January 1, 2000 reporting year, and data collected under the new requirements will likely be available in 2002. In setting the reporting threshold at 10 pounds per year, EPA stated that "some information on octachlorostyrene would be potentially lost from only one industry sector, pesticide manufacturing facilities." EPA anticipates receiving TRI reports on OCS emissions from 230 facilities (Federal Register, 1999b)

EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program is currently being developed to determine whether a substance may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by naturally occurring estrogen, androgen, or thyroid hormones. The program includes a strategy to screen and test suspected chemicals, including OCS.

Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy

OCS is targeted as a Level I substance in the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy: Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy (BNS) provides an established process for engaging stakeholders and seeking voluntary reduction efforts toward the virtual elimination of OCS in the Great Lakes. To date, the process has generated a draft Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy Octachlorostyrene (OCS) Report: A Review of Potential Sources. Stakeholder comments have been received in response to the report, providing new information, much of it unpublished, regarding the likelihood of potential sources releasing OCS and trends in environmental OCS levels.

Lakewide Management Plans

OCS is a recognized pollutant in the Lake Superior and Lake Ontario Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs).

Localized Contaminated Site Remediation

Remediation efforts directed at both hazardous waste sites and contaminated sediments in specific localities have resulted in removal of OCS from the environment. For example, landfills in the Niagara Falls area that received wastes containing OCS and other chlorinated organics from the production of chlorine prior to the 1970s have been the focus of ongoing cleanup efforts. In efforts to clean up the Niagara River, old storm sewers are being cleaned and landfill leachate is being diverted to waste water treatment. Dredging of contaminated sediments in the Ashtabula River in Ohio is also planned. Another example of localized remediation involves Dow Chemical Canada’s extensive remedial activities at its Scott Road Landfill and Cole Drain, which discharge effluent into the St. Clair River. Current effluent monitoring at the plant site and Scott Road landfill indicate a very small release rate that has been shown to be the result of on-site residuals.

2.7 Source/Sector Links with Other Chemicals

There is a similarity among the mechanisms of formation of HCB, chlorinated dioxins, and OCS. Because of this similarity, these pollutants may be emitted from some of the same source sectors. Table 2 lists, for OCS, the source sector links with other chemicals.

Table 2. Source/Sector Links with Other Chemicals

Source/Sector

Process

Other Level 1 Chemicals

Other Toxic Chemicals

Chlorinated solvents    Production HCB PAHs, phenol,1,1,1- trichloroethane, 1,2- dichlorobenzene, 1,3- butadiene, vinyl chloride
Waste incinerators   Combustion HCB, mercury, dioxin, chlorinated biphenyls naphthalene, PAHs, heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Zn, As, Cu, Ni)
Magnesium production Electrolysis dioxins/furans, HCB, chlorinated biphenyls chlorobenzenes, phosgene gas
Niobium and tantalum    Production dioxin2, HCB decachlorobiphenyl
Secondary aluminum and copper Smelting dioxin, HCB copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, lead, phenol, 1,1,1- trichloroethane, chlorobenzenes,   polychlorinated biphenyls, naphthalene
Semiconductor manufacture Aluminum plasma etching HCB hexachlorobutadiene

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3.0 GOALS

3.1 Relevant GPRA Goals

The strategic approach of this action plan is consistent with the goal of the PBT Strategy: to identify and reduce risks to human health and the environment from current and future exposure to priority PBT pollutants. In addition, this action plan supports several goals outlined in EPA’s Draft 2000 Strategic Plan. As required under the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA), EPA’s Strategic Plan describes EPA’s mission and sets forth ten primary goals that serve as the framework for the Agency’s planning and resource allocation decisions. Objectives in the Draft 2000 Strategic Plan have been revised from the 1997 Five Year Strategic Plan and are currently in draft form, undergoing external review separate from the draft Action Plan for OCS.

Goal 2: Clean and Safe Water

Goal 4: Preventing Pollution and Reducing Risk in Communities, Homes, Workplaces and Ecosystems

Goal 6: Reduction of Global and Cross-Border Environmental Risks

Goal 8: Sound Science, Improved Understanding of Environmental Risk and Greater Innovation to Address Environmental Problems

3.2 Goals for Octachlorostyrene

Considering the present state of understanding concerning sources and releases of OCS, the Agency has identified the following goals to characterize and reduce risks from current and future exposure to OCS:

  1. Further characterize the sources of OCS, releases, environmental trends, hot spots, and potential for exposure.
  2. Collect sufficient environmental monitoring data to determine whether further Agency action is required to reduce risks from exposure to OCS.
  3. Promote voluntary pollution prevention efforts to reduce releases, where appropriate.

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4.0 Strategic Approach

As discussed above, information characterizing OCS emissions and the potential for exposure to OCS is very limited at present. What information EPA does have suggests that the levels of OCS in the environment are generally low, and may be declining. In addition, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding sources of OCS. This situation, when viewed in light of the fact that a number of better understood and more prevalent PBT chemicals are competing with OCS for a limited Agency resource pool, could be viewed as suggesting limited or no further action on OCS. However, the existing information about the toxicity and bioaccumulation of OCS, its continued presence in the environment, and the limited data on which to "close the book" on OCS are continuing reasons for EPA to pursue the following approach, aimed primarily at narrowing or closing the existing data gaps. The strategic approach of the Agency will begin with the development of a fundamental understanding of OCS sources and sinks, and the quantification, to the extent practical, of quantities released to the environment. At the same time, EPA will pursue voluntary reductions of OCS releases wherever possible. EPA’s strategic approach will focus on the following areas:

1. Monitor OCS levels in the environment to determine the extent of OCS release, through:

2. Better characterize sources of OCS:

3. Promote voluntary pollution prevention efforts:

Opportunities for Integration with BNS Efforts, Sectors, and Work on Other PBTs

As shown in Table 2, OCS shares several source sectors with other Level 1 chemicals. Current or proposed actions and regulations to control other Level 1 chemicals for similar source sectors are expected to also reduce OCS emissions. A key component of EPA’s strategy for OCS is to understand the relationship between OCS and other Level 1 chemicals, and to take advantage of actions and regulations targeted at these other chemicals that will simultaneously reduce potential emissions of OCS, thereby maximizing the effective use of limited Agency resources.

Time Lines, Key Players, and Roles

The key Agency players will be OW and ORD in conducting fish tissue and sediment analyses, GLNPO in collecting air monitoring data though the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN), OPPTS, OW and GLNPO in analyzing the TRI, PCS, and BRS reports and assessing new information on environmental levels and trends, OSWER for review of data pertaining to hazardous waste sites and contaminated sediments, and Region 5 in coordinating voluntary efforts through the BNS. Also included in this effort will be all interested non-Agency stakeholders, such as representatives of the aluminum, chlorine, magnesium, and semiconductor industries, non-governmental environmental organizations, and selected state environmental agencies (e.g., NY, NJ, TX, LA, UT, WA). These state agencies may be able to facilitate voluntary collection and testing of effluents for OCS, and to promote voluntary pollution prevention efforts among industry in their states.

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5.0 Measures of Progress

The PBT Strategy requires that EPA follow several guiding principles, including the use of measurable objectives and the assessment of performance. These requirements coincide with GPRA requirements for measurement of progress and reporting of accomplishments. As stated in the PBT Strategy, EPA will use the following measures to track progress in reducing risks from OCS: (1) environmental or human health indicators, (2) chemical release, waste generation, or use indicators, or (3) programmatic output measures. Table 3 lists the specific indicators that will be used to measure progress for each action and GPRA goal.

Table 3. Measures of Progress and GPRA Goals for Actions to Reduce Risks from OCS

Action GPRA Goal Measure of Progress
National Study of Chemical Residues in Fish Goal 2 OCS levels in targeted geographic areas
Information collection and voluntary initiatives Goal 4 TRI, PCS, BRS, and BNS reports; voluntary programs
Sediment analyses Goal 6 OCS concentrations in targeted geographic areas
Source characterization, and investigation of the relationship between OCS releases and releases of other PBT substances such as HCB and dioxin Goal 8 Identified sources and quantifiable relationships that demonstrate whether actions to control other Level 1 PBTs will simultaneously reduce OCS


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6.0 Key Actions

The proposal to add OCS to TRI reporting at a 10-pound threshold was finalized on October 29, 1999. No additional regulatory actions are planned.

EPA will continue to seek stakeholder involvement through the BNS and other efforts. EPA considers stakeholder involvement essential to reaching the goal of the PBT Strategy and sought and received stakeholder input in the development and implementation of this draft national action plan for OCS. EPA will also invite public comment on the draft national action plan, and will encourage all interested partners to join in its efforts to reduce risks to human health and the environment from exposure to OCS.

Key actions identified to implement the strategic approach for OCS include:

Monitoring

Source Characterization & Voluntary Initiatives

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7.0 Reporting Progress

7.1 Reporting Procedure

{to be determined}

7.2 Reporting Schedule

{to be determined}

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8.0 References

Ahling, B., Bjorseth, A., Lunde, G. (1978) Formation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons during Combustion of Poly(vinyl chloride), Chemosphere 10:799-806.

Anscombe, Frank (1999) Personal communication.

Ciborowski, J.J.H., Corkum, L.D. (1988) Organic Contaminants in Adult Aquatic Insects of the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, Ontario, Canada, J. Great Lakes Res. 14(2):148-156.

Council of Great Lakes Industries (CGLI) (1999) Octachlorostyrene and Suggested Industrial Sources: A report to the Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy OCS Workgroup.

Dethlefsen, V.,Soffker, K., Buther, H., Damm, U., (1996) Organochlorine Compounds in Marine Organisms from the International North Sea Incineration Area, Arch. Fish. Mar. Res. 43 (3): 215 - 242.

Döring, J., Damberg, M., Gamradt, A., Oehme, M. (1992) Screening Method Based on the Determination of Perchlorinated Aromatics for Surface Soil Contaminated by Copper Slag Containing High Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Dibenzo-p-dioxins 25(6):755-762.

Drouillard, K.G., Ciborowski, J.J.H., Lazar, R., Haffner, G.D. (1996) Estimation of the uptake of organochlorines by the Mayfly Hexagenia limbata (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae), J. Great Lakes Res. 22(1):26-35.

Durham, R.W. and Oliver, B.G. (1983) History of Lake Ontario Contamination from the Niagara River by Sediment Radiodating and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Analysis, J. Great Lakes Res. 9(2): 160-168.

Federal Register March 23, 1995. Volume 60, Number 56; page 15365, 40 CFR Parts 9, 122, 123, 131, and 132, Final Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes System; Final Rule.

Federal Register: October 6, 1997. Volume 62, Number 193; page 52193-52219, Announcement of the Draft Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List; Notice

Federal Register: August 14, 1998. Volume 63, Number 157; page 43755 - 43828, Draft Water Quality Criteria Methodology Revisions: Human Health; Notice.

Federal Register: January 5, 1999a. Volume 64, Number 2; page 687-729, Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic (PBT) Chemicals; Proposed Rule.

Federal Register: October 29, 1999b. Volume 64, Number 209; page 58665-58753, 40 CFR Part 372, Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic (PBT) Chemicals; Final Rule.

Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) web site: http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/ Exit Disclaimer 1999

Health Canada (1998) Persistent Environmental Contaminants and the Great Lakes  Basin Population: An Exposure Assessment. Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada.

Holme, J.A. and Dybing, E. (1982) Induction of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 and associated monooxygenases by octachlorostyrene in inbred strains of mice, Biochemical Pharmacology, 31(15):2523-2529.

Jaffe, R. and Hites, R.A. (1986) Anthropogenic, Polyhalogenated, Organic Compounds in Non-migratory Fish from the Niagara River Area and Tributaries to Lake Ontario, J. Great Lakes Res. 12(1):63-71.

Kaminsky, R., Hites, R.A. (1984) Octachlorostyrene in Lake Ontario: Sources and Fates, Environ. Sci. Technol. 18(4):275-279.

King, L. and Sherbin, G. (1986) Point sources of toxic organics to the upper St. Clair River, J. Water Poll. Res. 21(3):433-446.

Kuehl, D.W., Butterworth, B., and Marquis, P.J. (1994) A national study of chemical residues in fish, III: study results, Chemosphere 29:523-535.

Kuehl, D.W., Haebler, R. (1995) Organochlorine, Organobromine, Metal, and Selenium Residues in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Collected During an Unusual Mortality Event in the Gulf of Mexico, 1990, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 28:494-499.

Kuehl, D.W., Johnson, K.L., Butterworth, B.C., Leonard, E.N., and Veith, G.D. (1981) Quantification of Octachlorostyrene and Related Compounds in Great Lakes Fish by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, J. Great Lakes Res. 7(3):330-335.

Lahaniatis, E.S., Bergheim, W. and Rainer, C. (1989) Hazardous Halogenated Substances Formed During Combustion Processes, Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 20-21: 501-506.

Lunde, G., Bjorseth, A. (1977) Human Blood Samples as Indicators of Occupational Exposure to Persistent Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Science of the Total Environment 8:241-246.

Markovec, L.M., Magee, R.J. (1984) Identification of Major Perchloroaromatic Compounds in Waste Products from the Production of Carbon Tetrachloride and Tetrachloroethylene, Analyst 109:497-501.

Mes, J. Davies, D.J., Doucet, J., Weber, D., and McMullen, E. (1993) Levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in Canadian human breast milk and their relationship to some characteristics of the donors, Food Additives and Contaminants 10(4):429-441.

Oehme, M., Manř, S., Bjerke, B. (1989) Formation of Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Dibenzo-p-dioxins by Production Processes for Magnesium and Refined Nickel, Chemosphere 18(7-8): 1379-1389.

Ofstad, E.B., Lunde, G., Martinsen, K., (1978) Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fish in an Area Polluted by Industrial Effluents, Science of the Total Environment 10:219-230.

Oliver, B.G. and Bourbonniere, R.A. (1985) Chlorinated contaminants in surficial sediments of Lakes Huron, St. Clair, and Erie: Implications regarding sources along the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, J. Great Lakes Res. 11(3):366-372.

Otero, R. and Grimalt, J.O. (1994) Organochlorine Compounds in Foodstuffs Produced Near a Chlorinated Organic Solvent Factory, Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 46:61-72.

Pugsley, C.W., Hebert, P.D.N., Wood, G.W., Brotea, G., Obal, T.W. (1985) Distribution of Contaminants in Clams and Sediments from the Huron-Erie Corridor. I–PCBs and Octachlorostyrene, J. Great Lakes Res. 11(3):275-289.

Pereira, W.E., Rostad, C.E., Chiou, C.T., Brinton, T.I., and Barber, L.B., II. (1988) Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study, Environ. Sci. Technol. 22:772-778.

Pugsley, C.W., Hebert, P.D.N., Wood, G.W., Brotea, G., Obal, T.W. (1985) Distribution of Contaminants in Clams and Sediments from the Huron-Erie Corridor. I–PCBs and Octachlorostyrene, J. Great Lakes Res. 11(3):275-289.

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GLOSSARY

BNS Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy
CAS Chemical Abstracts Service
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
GLNPO Great Lakes National Program Office
GPRA Government Performance and Results Act of 1993
HCB Hexachlorobenzene
HCE Hexachloroethane
IADN Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network
LaMP Lakewide Management Plan
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
OAR EPA Office of Air and Radiation
OCS Octachlorostyrene
ORD EPA Office of Research and Development
OW EPA Office of Water
PAHs Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
PBT Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic
PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls
PVC Polyvinyl chloride
TRI Toxics Release Inventory

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Appendix A: List of Key Contacts and Action Planning Matrix

List of Key Contacts

Name Re: Organization Phone
Frank Anscombe USEPA, Region 5 (312) 353-0201
Jonathan Herrmann USEPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory


Action Planning Matrix

Strategic
Approach
Activity Key Players GPRA and
Other goals
Measures Outcome Agency
Resource
Committments
Milestones Priority
Rank
EPA:
Lead Office;
Contacts
Stakeholders:
Organization;
Contacts
Strategy 1 Activity 1                
Activity 2                
Activity 3                
Activity 4                
Strategy 2 Activity 1                
Activity 2                
....                
                 


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Footnotes

1. It should be noted that significant recent advances have been made in process technology and pollution prevention practices in some of these industries that may have eliminated them as current sources of OCS. [Return to text]

2. Some evidence exists suggesting that this category is a source of dioxin emissions. However, insufficient data were available for the 1998 USEPA Dioxin Inventory to make a quantitative emissions estimate. [Return to text]

 

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