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Remediation/Cleanup Technologies

There are several fundamental principles when it comes to selecting corrective action technologies. First, the primary objectives at any petroleum release site are to immediately stop the release and take steps to ensure that it does not recur, and to quickly recover to the maximum extent practicable any free product that was released into the subsurface. Second, OUST does not recognize the concept of a "presumptive" remedy. Selection of an appropriate corrective action technology is a site-specific decision, and there may be more than one technology that could be appropriate for a given site. Third, an appropriate technology is one that will be fully protective of human health and the environment, and will meet site remediation objectives within a reasonable time frame. Fourth, essential site-specific data can only be derived from a comprehensive site assessment.

OUST defines "Alternative Cleanup Technologies" as those which are alternatives to pump-and-treat (for groundwater) and excavation and disposal (for soil) which have been proven to be effective. Examples of alternative cleanup technologies include: soil vapor extraction (SVE), air sparging, biosparging, landfarming, biopiles, bioventing, low-temperature thermal desorption, in situ groundwater bioremediation, dual-phase extraction, monitored natural attenuation, enhanced aerobic bioremediation, and chemical oxidation.

Some of the newer technologies, which have not yet been demonstrated to be cost-effective for typical UST sites, are referred to as "innovative technologies". Examples of innovative technologies include: radio frequency heating, co-solvents, surfactants, and soil washing. Visit EPA's CLU-IN Web site for more information on innovative technologies Exit EPA Disclaimer.

NOTE: QA documents referred to in some of the following publications may be outdated. Visit The EPA Quality System web site for the latest version of EPA's QA documents.

EPA Remediation/Cleanup Information

Technology Verification

Non-EPA Remediation/Cleanup Links

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