MTBE Remediation And Treatment
These pages provide information on the remediation and treatment of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination. For other MTBE topics, please return to the MTBE main page.
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- A Circle Vicious: What Do We Know About the Other Oxygenates?
(PDF) (5 pp, 286K, About PDF) 2001.
Published in L.U.S.T. Line, a technical newsletter for underground storage tank stakeholders, this article presents information on ether oxygenates and ethanol. Remediation technologies are also discussed.
- Achieving Clean Air and Clean Water: The Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (PDF) (119 pp, 481K, About PDF) 1999. EPA420-R-99-021.
Prepared by the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline, this report studies the impacts of fuel oxygenates on human health and the environment. Remediation, water contamination, air quality, and release prevention are discussed. Impacts of ethanol and MTBE are compared.
- Fate, Transport and Remediation of MTBE: Nancy E. Kinner Testimony before the United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (PDF) (16 pp, 56K, About PDF) 2001.
In her testimony before the United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Professor Nancy E. Kinner of New Hampshire University presents information on the fate, transport, and remediation of MTBE.
- Groundwater Remediation
Strategies Tool (PDF) (80 pp, 1.3MB, About PDF) 2003.
Prepared by the American Petroleum Institute, this guide provides tools for ground water remediation strategies.
- Guidelines for Investigation and Cleanup of MTBE and Other Ether-Based Oxygenates (PDF) (20 pp, 72K, About PDF) 2000.
Prepared by California's State Water Resource Control Board, this document provides guidance to California regulatory agencies on overseeing the investigation and cleanup of sites with MTBE contamination.
- MTBE: Effects on Soil and Groundwater Resources 2000.
This book provides in-depth information on MTBE, including assessment and potential remediation strategies, history and overview, physical and chemical properties, and toxicity and health effects.
- MTBE Fact Sheet #2: Remediation of MTBE Contaminated Soil and Groundwater (PDF) (5 pp, 38K, About PDF) 1998. EPA 510-F-97-015.
Published by EPA, this fact sheet explores topics related to MTBE remediation, including physical properties, remediation technologies, and cost considerations.
- MTBE Remediation Handbook 2004.
This book provides information on MTBE, including its history, properties, occurrence, assessment, applicable remediation technologies, and remediation case studies.
- MTBE Resource Guide 2005.
Prepared by the European Fuel Oxygenates Association, this guide provides information on MTBE, including its use and handling, the prevention and remediation of spills, and links to online resources, reports, and studies.
- MTBE Treatment Profiles 2008.
A project sponsored jointly by EPA's Technology Innovation Office and the Office of Underground Storage Tanks. This searchable Web site contains data on almost 250 completed and ongoing applications of MTBE treatment for drinking water and contaminated media. The treatment profiles describe sites at which technologies have been used to treat MTBE in ground water, soil, and drinking water.
- Publications on Remediation Undated.
Prepared by EPA, this Web page provides links to resources on remediation, including the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable remediation abstracts.
- Remediation and Treatment 2000.
This Web page provides resources collected by the Center for Groundwater Research at the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI).
- Ten Frequently Asked Questions About MTBE in Water (PDF) (2 pp, 38K, About PDF) 1998.
Prepared by the American Petroleum Institute, this bulletin provides information on assessing and remediating MTBE-impacted sites.
Bioremediation, Phytoremediation, And Natural Attenuation
- Aerobic Biodegradation of Gasoline Oxygenates MTBE and TBA 2001.
Published in Water Science Technology, this paper presents research results relating to the degradation of MTBE using a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biomass retention (porous pot reactor) operated under aerobic conditions.
- Aerobic Biodegradation of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether by Aquifer Bacteria from Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (PDF) (6 pp, 410 K, About PDF) 2001.
Published in Applied Environmental Microbiology, this paper presents the results of research on the effect of bacteria in an aquifer on the aerobic biodegradation of MTBE at four LUST sites.
- Anaerobic Biodegradation of Gasoline Oxygenates: Extrapolation of Information to Multiple Sites and Redox Conditions (PDF) (6pp, 762K, About PDF) 1994.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents the results of a study on the susceptibility to anaerobic decay of alcohol, ketone, ester, and ether oxygenates in sediment environments.
- Anaerobic Biodegradation of MTBE at a Gasoline Spill Site (PDF) (13 pp, 282K, About PDF) 2005.
Published in Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, this paper presents the results of research conducted on a MTBE plume at a retail gasoline station in Parsippany, New Jersey.
- Biodegradation of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether and Other Fuel Oxygenates by a New Strain, Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012 2002.
Published in Applied Environmental Microbiology, this paper presents research results on the effect of a methylotrophic bacterium on the biodegradation of MTBE and other oxygenates.
- Bioremediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Gasoline Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates Using a Membrane-Based Reactor 2006.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents the results of a study on the use of a field-scale aerobic bioreactor in the ex-situ treatment of ground water contaminated with gasoline from a leaking underground storage tank in Pascoag, Rhode Island.
- Carbon Isotopic Fractionation during Anaerobic Biotransformation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Amyl Methyl Ether 2004.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents the results of a study on the potential of applying carbon isotope fractionation as an indicator for in-situ biodegradation of MTBE and TAME.
- Clu-In Technology Focus: Natural Attenuation Undated.
Prepared by EPA's Technology Innovation Program, this Web page provides links to numerous reports related to natural attenuation.
- Does Competitive Inhibition Play a Role in MTBE Bioremediation? (PDF) (2 pp, 104K, About PDF) 2003.
Prepared by Regenesis Bioremediation Products, Inc., this report presents the results of a series of laboratory experiments conducted to determine the effect of background hydrocarbons on MTBE degradation.
- Evaluation of Biodegradation and Dispersion as Natural Attenuation Processes of MTBE and Benzene at the Borden Field Site 1999.
Published in Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, this paper presents research results on degradation of MTBE and benzene at Canadian Forces Bases (CFB) Borden in Ontario, Canada.
- Intrinsic Biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX in a Gasoline-Contaminated Aquifer 1997.
Published in Water Resources Research, this paper presents the results of research on the biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX.
- Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Bioremediation Studies 2002.
Published in the Annals of Microbiology, this paper presents the results of a literature review on MTBE including toxicology and remediation.
- Microbial Degradation and Fate in the Environment of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether and Related Fuel Oxygenates 2001.
Published in Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, this paper provides a review of current work related to the degradation and fate of MTBE and TBA.
- Monitored Natural Attenuation of MTBE as a Risk Management Option at Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (PDF) (89 pp, 6.1MB, About PDF) 2005. EPA/600/R-04/1790.
Prepared by EPA, this report reviews current information on the transport and fate of MTBE in ground water, with an emphasis on the use of monitored natural attenuation in MTBE remediation.
- Natural Attenuation of MTBE in the Subsurface under Methanogenic Conditions (PDF) (59 pp, 1.5MB, About PDF) 2000. EPA/600/R-00/006.
This report was produced by EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory to address the biodegradation of MTBE under methanogenic conditions in ground water.
- Potential for the Bioremediation of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) (PDF) (5 pp, 200K, About PDF) 2003.
Prepared by Regenesis Bioremediation Products, Inc., this report explores the role of Oxygen Release Compound (ORC) in MTBE degradation.
- Relationship Between Subsurface Biodegradation Rates and Microbial Density (PDF) (8 pp, 1.1MB, About PDF) 1989.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents the results of research on the rates and patterns of biodegradation of methanol, phenol, and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in surface and subsurface soils.
- Stable Isotope Analysis of MTBE to Evaluate the Source of TBA in Ground Water 2005.
Published in Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, this paper presents the results of research on biodegradation of MTBE.
- Technical Protocol for Evaluating the Natural Attenuation of MtBE (PDF) (186 pp, 2.8MB, About PDF) 2007.
Prepared by the American Petroleum Institute, this protocol addresses data collection, evaluation, and interpretation procedures that consider the physical, chemical, and biological properties of MTBE and other oxygenates and degradation byproducts.
- Use of Compound-Specific Stable Carbon Isotope Analyses to Demonstrate Anaerobic Biodegradation of MTBE in Groundwater at a Gasoline Release Site 2002.
Published in Environmental Science & Technology, this paper presents the results of a study exploring the use of compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses to distinguish MTBE biodegradation from other biotic processes in an anaerobic ground water plume.
- Using Phytoremediation to Control Fuel Oxygenate Plumes in Northern Climates Undated.
Prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this Web page provides information on work conducted by USGS scientists and their partners on the use of phytoremediation to contain and remediate a subsurface plume of gasoline located on the Flathead Indian Reservation near Ronan, Montana. Links to reports and additional resources are included.
- California MTBE Research Partnership Reports 2008.
This Web page presents a bibliography of downloadable reports related to treatment technologies for MTBE, prepared by the California MTBE Research Partnership.
- Demonstration and Evaluation of an Automated Infiltration Gallery System at Port Hueneme, CA (PDF) (109 pp, 4.5MB, About PDF) 2008. EPA/600/R-08/068.
This EPA paper presents the results of research on the treatment of fuel components using a remotely operated infiltration gallery.
- Demonstration of the HiPOx Advanced Oxidation Technology for the Treatment of MTBE-Contaminated Groundwater (PDF) (33 pp, 860K, About PDF) 2002. EPA/600/R-02/094
This EPA report presents the results of research on the use of HiPOx advanced oxidation technology in the treatment of MTBE-contaminated ground water from the Ventura County Naval Base in Port Hueneme, California.
- Envirogen Propane Biostimulation Technology for In-Situ Treatment of MTBE-Contaminated Ground Water (PDF) (152 pp, 2.8MB, About PDF) 2002. EPA/R-02/092.
Prepared by EPA, this Innovative Technology Evaluation Report provides detailed information on Envirogen's propane biostimulation technology, which is used in the treatment of MTBE-contaminated ground water.
- High-Energy Electron Injection (E-Beam) Technology for the Ex-Situ Treatment of MTBE-Contaminated Ground Water (PDF) (85 pp, 1.1MB, About PDF) 2002. EPA/600/R-02/066.
This Innovative Technology Evaluation Report examines the use of high-energy electron injection (E-Beam) technology in the treatment of MTBE-contaminated ground water.
- High Voltage Environmental
Applications, Inc. Electron Beam Technology: Innovative Technology Evaluation Report (PDF) (66 pp, 206K, About PDF) 1997. EPA/540/R-96/504.
Prepared by EPA's Office of Research and Development, this report evaluates the ability of high-voltage electron beam (E-beam) technology to destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other contaminants present in liquid wastes.
- In-line Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment for Removal of Organic Chemicals 1992.
Published by Water Research Foundation, this report presents the results of a study on the effectiveness of an in-line application of ozone and hydrogen peroxide to remove organic chemicals at much higher pressures than those in conventional ozone and hydrogen peroxide dissolution and contacting systems.
- In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (PDF) (60 pp, 2.6MB, About PDF) 2006. EPA/600/R-06/072.
One of a series of EPA Engineering Issue Papers which summarize the latest available information on specific technical issues. This paper provides an overview of in-situ chemical oxidation remediation technology.
- Overview of Groundwater Remediation Technologies for MTBE and TBA (PDF) (132 pp, 2.4MB, About PDF) 2005.
Prepared by The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council MTBE and Other Fuel Oxygenates Team, this report provides an overview of remediation technologies for MTBE and TBA in groundwater.
- Performance of Conventional Remedial Technology for Treatment of MTBE and Benzene at UST Sites in Kansas 2004.
Published in Remediation, this paper presents the results of research comparing the relative performance of conventional remedial technologies for treating MTBE as compared to benzene.
- Removing Organics From Groundwater Through Aeration Plus GAC 1984.
Published in the journal of the American Water Works Association, this paper presents the details on the design, operation, and performance of GAC and aeration systems employed at a site in New Jersey.
- Technologies for Treating MTBE and Other Fuel Oxygenates (PDF) (106 pp, 2.26MB , About PDF) 2004. EPA 542-R-04-009.
Prepared by EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation, this report provides information on technologies used in the remediation of MTBE and other oxygenate contamination.
- Treatability of MTBE-Contaminated Groundwater by Ozone and Peroxone 2001.
Published in the journal of the American Water Works Association, this paper presents the details on the use of ozone and peroxone in the treatment of MTBE contamination.
- Treatment of Groundwater Contaminated with PAHs, Gasoline Hydrocarbons, and Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether in a Laboratory Biomass-Retaining Bioreactor 2006.
Published in Bioremediation, this paper presents the results of a study investigating use of an ex-situ aerobic biotreatment system in the treatment of co-mingled ground water contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, gasoline hydrocarbons, and MTBE.
- Treatment of Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-Contaminated Water with Fenton's Reagent (PDF) (18 pp, 248K, About PDF) 2003. EPA/600/JA-03/117.
This paper presents the results of EPA-sponsored research on the effectiveness of Fenton's Reagent in treating MTBE-contaminated water.
- ASTSWMO 1999 State Symposium on MTBE and Fuel Oxygenates: Remediation Solutions 1999.
These session highlights from an Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO) symposium include presentation abstracts and a schedule of activities.
- ASTSWMO 2002 State Symposium on Fuel Oxygenates; Analysis, Assessment, and Remediation 2002.
These session highlights from ASTSWMO's symposium include a workshop summary and links to presentations.
- Summary of Workshop on Biodegradation of MTBE, February 1-3, 2000 (PDF) (45 pp, 486K, About PDF) 2000.
This report provides a summary of proceedings at a workshop on biodegradation of MTBE-contaminated soils and ground water sponsored by EPA and the American Petroleum Institute.
- Kelley, K.L., M.C. Marley and K.L. Sperry. In-Situ Chemical Oxidation of MTBE. Soil Sediment & Groundwater. July/August 2002.
This article reviews several common oxidants and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for use in the oxidation of MTBE.
- Lambie, J., and L.D. Ochs. In-Situ Remediation of MTBE and TBA in Groundwater Using Iso-Gen Technology to Biostimulate Indigenous Microbes. Soil Sediment & Groundwater. July/August 2002.
This article evaluates the use of Iso-Gen technology in in-situ remediation of MTBE and TBA at sites in Iso-Banta, San Jose, and San Luis Obispo, California and in Salt Lake City, Utah.
- Novak, J.T., C.D. Goldsmith, R.E. Benoit, and J.H. O'Brien. 1994. Biodegradation of Methanol and Tertiary Butyl Alcohol in Subsurface Systems. Water Science Technology. 17, Copenhagen, 71-85.
- Spinnler, G.E., J.P. Salanitro, P.M. Maner, and K.A. Lyons.
Enhanced Bioremediation of MTBE (BioRemedy) at Retail Gas Stations. Soil Sediment & Groundwater. 2001.
This article explores the use of BioRemedy, an enhanced bioremediation technique, in the remediation of MTBE at retail gas stations.
- Wilson, B.H. and J.T. Wilson. Remedial Costs for MTBE in Soil and Groundwater. Soil Sediment & Groundwater. July/August 2002.
This paper examines the cost of remediation of MTBE/BTEX releases compared to sites with BTEX-only contamination.
- Wilson, R.D., M. Schirmer, C.N. Naas, A. Smith, C. Smith, K.M. Scow, M.R. Hyman, and D.M. Mackay. 1999. Laboratory-Scale Evaluation of In Situ Aerobic MTBE Biodegradation Options for Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Proceedings of the 2000 Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water: Prevention, Detection, and Remediation. Houston, Texas November 17-19, 1999. Pages 167 to 175.