Fuel Oxygenates: Health And Safety
These resources provide information on the health and safety of oxygenates. Additional resources are available regarding the health and safety of ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). For additional oxygenates topics, return to the oxygenates main page.
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- Achieving Clean Air and Clean Water: The Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (PDF) (119 pp, 481K, About PDF) 1999. EPA420-R-99-021.
Prepared by the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline, this report studies the impacts of fuel oxygenates on human health and the environment. Remediation, water contamination, air quality, and release prevention are discussed. Impacts of ethanol and MTBE are compared.
- Alternative Fuels Research Strategy. Review Draft (PDF) (520 pp, 2.44MB, About PDF) 1992. EPA 600/AP-92/002.
Prepared by EPA's Office of Research and Development, this report lays a foundation for developing the scientific information needed to compare the benefits and risks of various motor vehicle fuels, especially alternative and reformulated fuels, in relation to conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. MTBE, ETBE, and ethanol are discussed.
- Bulletin #21: Evaluation of Potential Vapor Transport to Indoor Air Associated with Small-Volume Releases of Oxygenated Gasoline in the Vadose Zone (PDF) (4 pp, 306K, About PDF) 2005.
This paper presents the results of research by the American Petroleum Institute's Soil and Ground Water Technical Task Force on human exposure through vapor transport to indoor air from small-volume releases of oxygenated gasoline in the vadose zone at underground storage tank sites.
- Cleaner Gasoline for Cleaner Air Better for Your Health 1995. EPA 420-F-95-005.
Prepared by EPA's Office of Mobile Sources, this Web page provides information on the health aspects of reformulated gasoline.
- Effects of a Thirteen-Week Inhalation Exposure to Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether on Fischer-344 Rats and CD-1 Mice 1999.
Published in Toxicological Sciences, this paper presents the results of research of the toxic effects of ETBE inhalation exposure in rats.
- Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Inhaled Methanol on Nonhuman Primates and Their Infant Offspring Undated.
This EPA Web page provides information on research on inhalation exposures to methanol in primates. Additional information and links are provided.
- Health Risk Perspectives on Fuel Oxygenates (PDF) (16 pp, 113K, About PDF) 1994. EPA 600/R-94/217.
Prepared by EPA's Office of Research and Development in 1994, this report explores issues related to the health impacts of oxygenates in fuel.
- EPA's HPV Chemical Data 2007.
EPA's High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program's database can be searched by chemical name or CAS number. Under this program, companies make health and environmental effects data publicly available for chemicals produced or imported in the United States in the large quantities.
- Influence of Oxygenated Fuel Additives and Their Metabolites on Y-Aminobutyric AcidA (GABAA) Receptor Function in Rat Brain Synaptoneurosomes 2004.
Published in Toxicology Letters, this paper assess the effects of the ethers and their alcohol precursors on Y-aminobutyric acidA receptor function in rats.
- Metabolism of Ether Oxygenates Added to Gasoline 2001.
This Web page, prepared by the Health Effects Institute, provides links to a report reviewing three research projects on the metabolism of ether oxygenates in humans and other species.
- Odor Threshold Studies Performed with Gasoline and Gasoline Combined with MTBE, ETBE and TAME 1994.
This report was prepared by the American Petroleum Institute.
- Program Summary: Research on Oxygenates Added to Gasoline 2001.
Prepared by the Health Effects Institute, this Web page provides summary information on an oxygenate research program which has funded several toxicologic studies to evaluate metabolism and toxicokinetics of ethers such as MTBE, ETBE, and TAME.
- Reference Outline: Toxicological Review of Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether (CAS No. 994-05-8) (PDF) (21 pp, 127K, About PDF) Undated.
This outline provides summary data and references related to a variety of TAME-related issues, including chemical and physical properties, toxicokinetics, and human health studies.
- Robust Summaries & Test Plans: Methanol 2001.
This submission to EPA's High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program, which makes information on high production volume chemicals accessible to the public, provides detailed information on methanol.
- Synopsis, Research Report Number 73: Developmental Neurotoxicity of Inhaled Methanol in Rats 2004.
Prepared by the Health Effects Institute, this report presents a synopsis of research on the effects of prenatal and early postnatal inhalation of methanol on neurobehavior in rats.
- Synopsis, Research Report Number 74: Methanol Distribution in NonPregnant and Pregnant Rodents 2004.
Prepared by the Health Effects Institute, this report presents a synopsis of research conducted to determine the relationship between methanol exposure and its uptake into and elimination from the blood of nonpregnant and pregnant rodents.
- Synopsis, Research Report Number 77: Metabolic Studies in Monkeys Exposed to Methanol Vapors 2004.
Prepared by the Health Effects Institute, this report presents a synopsis of research performed to determine the effects of methanol vapor exposure in monkeys.
- T-Butanol Preliminary Search Results: Chronic and Less-than-Lifetime Toxicity Studies (PDF) (39 pp, 228K, About PDF) 2007.
Produced by EPA, this list includes a variety of 1-butanol-related references with abstracts.
- The Potential Health Effects of Oxygenates Added to Gasoline. A Review of the Current Literature 1996.
This Special Report of the Health Institute's Oxygenates Evaluation Committee contains the findings of a comprehensive literature review related to health effects of oxygenates in gasoline.
- Toxicokinetics of Ethers Used as Fuel Oxygenates 2001.
Published in Toxicology Letters, this paper summarizes the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of MTBE, ETBE, and TAME in rats and humans.
- Toxicology and Human Health Effects Following Exposure to Oxygenated or Reformulated Gasoline 2001.
Published in Toxicology Letters, this paper reviews the current understanding of the toxicology and health impacts of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and ethanol. Environmental exposure, compound fate and health risks, epidemiological and clinical studies, animal studies, metabolic and kinetic studies, and regulatory classification/response are discussed.
These chemical profiles, pocket guides, and material safety data sheets include information on the health impacts of oxygenates.
- Chemical Profile for ETHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (CAS Number: 637-92-3) 2005.
Provided by Scorecard, an online resource for information about pollution problems and toxic chemicals, this Web page provides basic ETBE-related information and links to other resources.
- Chemical Profile for METHANOL (CAS Number: 67-56-1) 2005.
Provided by Scorecard, an online resource for information about pollution problems and toxic chemicals, this Web page provides basic methanol-related information and links to other resources.
- Chemical Profile for TERT-BUTYL ALCOHOL (CAS Number: 75-65-0) 2005.
Provided by Scorecard, an online resource for information about pollution problems and toxic chemicals, this Web page provides basic TBA-related information and links to other resources.
- Integrated Risk Information System: n-Butanol (CASRN 71-36-3) 1991.
EPA's Integrated Risk Information System provides detailed human health-related information on n-butanol.
- Integrated Risk Information System: Methanol (CASRN 67-56-1) 1993.
EPA's Integrated Risk Information System provides detailed human health-related information on methanol.
- International Chemical Safety Card: Diisopropyl Ether 1996.
This fact sheet, prepared by the National Institutes of Health in partnership with other agencies, provides basic safety and handling information related to DIPE.
- Material Safety Data Sheet: N-Propyl Alcohol 2009.
This Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) presents background information on propanol, including hazards identification, health effects, first aid and firefighting measures, handling and storage directions, exposure controls, toxicological information, and physical and chemical properties.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Methyl Alcohol 2005.
This pocket guide, prepared by the National Institutes of Health, provides basic safety and handling information related to methanol.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Tert-Butyl Alcohol 2005.
This pocket guide, prepared by the National Institutes of Health, provides basic safety and handling information related to TBA.
- Technical Product Bulletin: ETBE 2006.
Prepared by the European Fuel Oxygenates Association, this bulletin provides information on ETBE, including its physical properties, materials compatibility, and health impacts.