Best Nonpoint Source Documents
The following list highlights some of the best nonpoint source materials that we are aware of for both professionals and the public. We recognize that there are many other excellent resources available, and we intend to continuously update this listing as appropriate. The following major categories are highlighted as follows:AGRICULTURE DOCUMENTS
Cross-cutting; multi-issue manuals
Core4 Conservation Practices: the common sense approach to natural resource conservation. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (1999). This reference manual is intended to help USDA-NRCS personnel and other conservation and nonpoint source management professionals implement effective programs on the land using four core conservation practices: conservation tillage, nutrient management, pest management, and conservation buffers. The Core4 concept was established by the Conservation Technology Information System and is supported by USDA, EPA, and agribusiness. For more information or to receive a copy on CD-ROM contact Arnold King, Grazing Lands Technology Institute, NRCS, P.O. Box 6567, Fort Worth, TX 76115. The document can be also be accessed at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/ECS/agronomy/core4.pdfForestryBest .
Farming for Clean Water in South Carolina: a handbook of conservation practices. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (1997). Compiled by Dennis DeFrancesco of USDA- NRCS for the South Carolina DNR, this 135-page manual covers all the farming basics: calibration, stripcropping, water diversions, composting, IPM, recordkeeping, pesticides, nutrients...and the list goes on. Based in large part on the Field Office Technical Guide and Clemson University publications, this document was produced using Section 319 funding. While not in-depth, the document has great pictures and an easy to follow, consistent format. Contact SCDNR for more information: (803) 737-0800.
50 Ways Farmers Can Protect Their Groundwater. University of Illinois, College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service (1993). The title says it all. While focusing on the management of fertilizers and pesticides, this 190-page book covers livestock waste, wells, hazardous chemicals, and water testing briefly. Contact Information Services, 217-333-2007 for a copy or See: http://www.thisland.uiuc.edu/50ways/index.htm.
Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water (1993). Developed for use by State Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs, Chapter 2 of this document covers erosion control, animal feeding operation management, grazing practices, and management of nutrients, pesticides, and irrigation water. This document has become a must-have for nonpoint source control professionals. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter2/index.html.
National Handbook of Conservation Practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. This resource contains all conservation practice standards issued by the Natural Resources Conservation Service. All conservation topics are covered: nutrient management, conservation tillage, erosion control, irrigation, grazing, etc.See: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/standards/nhcp_notices.html.
60 Ways Farmers Can Protect Surface Water. University of Illinois, College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service (1993). Topics include residue management, water flow control, nutrient management, livestock waste handling, and pesticide management. Contact Information Services, 217-333-2007, or See: http://www.thisland.uiuc.edu/60ways/index.htm.
Soybean Management and the Land: A Best Management Practices Handbook for Growers. American Soybean Association (2000). This manual is a two-for-one bonus. The "Resource Book" presents information on BMPs for the farmstead, cropland, pastureland, and other areas. All types of BMPs are covered: erosion, pest management, nutrients, well protection, buffers, etc. The BMP discussion includes real world examples of how these practices work through testimonials from real farmers. The "Workbook" allows soybean growers to assess the conditions on their farm and determine their environmental risk level. The "Workbook" also guides the producer to make a plan for improvement. Contact the American Soybean Association, 800-688-7692, ext. 210; ASA, 12125 Woodcrest Executive Drive, Suite 100, St. Louis, MO 63141, email@example.com (cost $36).
(See list for Cross-cutting Manuals)
(See list for Cross-cutting Manuals)
Agricultural Phosphorus and Eutrophication. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-149 (1999). A small booklet co-authored by USDA-ARS and U.S. EPA staff, this resource details the relationship between phosphorus application to agricultural fields and eutrophication of our Nation's waterways. A good primer on the phosphorus cycle and actions that can help control phosphorus. For copies contact USDA-ARS, Pasture Systems & Watershed Management Research Laboratory, Curtin Road, University Park, PA 16802-3702 (while supplies last) or purchase copies from the National Technical Information Service (703) 605-6000.
Agricultural Waste Management Field Handbook: USDA - NRCS National Engineering Handbook (NEH): Part 651. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. The Animal Waste Management Field Handbook is an excellent resource for animal waste system designers or anyone with interest in how animal waste is typically handled and stored. The document covers all aspects of the design and management of animal facilities and has lots of very useful diagrams and figures. See: http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/awm/awmfh.html.
Earthen and Manure Storage Design Considerations. Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, Cooperative Extension (1999). Publication number NRAES-109 covers environmental policy as well as manure storage and management. The text can be technical but also covers the basics of environmental issues and risk reduction. NRAES, Cooperative Extension, 152 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853-5701, (607) 255-7654. See: http://www.nraes.org/.
Liquid Manure Application Systems Design Manual. Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, Cooperative Extension (1998). Document number NRAES-89 focuses on the characteristics and land application of liquid manure. Evaluation of application sites for environmental risk, manure handling, and safety are key issues. NRAES, Cooperative Extension, 152 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853-5701, (607) 255-7654. See: http://www.nraes.org/.
On-Farm Composting Handbook. Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, Cooperative Extension (1992). NRAES-54 describes the composting process in detail as well as discusses the benefits and drawbacks of using composting in an operation. Raw materials, various composting methods, how to use compost, and how to market compost are all covered in this 186-page manual. For copies, contact NRAES, Cooperative Extension, 152 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853-5701, (607) 255-7654. See: http://www.nraes.org/.
Poultry Waste Management Handbook. Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, Cooperative Extension (1999). (NRAES-132) The handbook discusses storage, treatment, and utilization of poultry litter and mortalities. Emphasis is placed on composting and nutrient management. For copies, contact NRAES, Cooperative Extension, 152 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853-5701, (607) 255-7654. See: http://www.nraes.org/.
Poultry Water Quality Handbook: second edition expanded. Poultry Water Quality Consortium (1998). This handbook includes a series of fact sheets that create a comprehensive poultry management binder. The handbook covers water and air quality, waste and mortality management, and alternative technologies for poultry and egg producers. Contact the Poultry Water Quality Consortium for a copy: 6100 Building, Suite 4300, 5720 Uptain Road, Chattanooga, TN 37411, or call (423) 855-6470.
Best Management Practices for Grazing. Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (1999). This manual describes the BMPs developed as part of Montana's Prescribed Grazing Standard (NRCS Conservation Practice Standard). The manual covers grazing management plans, riparian areas, forestlands, and winter feeding areas. For copies, contact the Conservation Districts Bureau, Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, P.O. Box 201601, Helena, MT 59620-1601, or call (406) 444-6667.
Managing Change: livestock grazing on western riparian
areas. U.S. EPA Region VIII (1993).
National Range and Pasture Handbook. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Grazing Lands Technology Institute (1997). Part of the NRCS Field Office Technical Guide, this manual covers inventorying, monitoring, and managing grazing lands as well as livestock nutrition, behavior, and husbandry. Special sections deal with the economics of grazing, wildlife management, and hydrology. See: http://www.glti.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/publications/nrph.html.
Best Management Practices for Agrichemical Handling and Farm Equipment Maintenance. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and Florida Department of Environmental Protection (May 1998). This 51-page booklet covers pesticides, fertilizers, and solvents and degreasers. Emphasis is placed on storage, mixing, loading, spill management, and disposal. Emergency reporting is also stressed. See: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/water/nonpoint/docs/nonpoint/agbmp3p.pdf. (PDF, 692KB, 51 pages)
National Integrated Pest Management Network. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (2000). "The National Integrated Pest Management Network (NIPMN) is the result of a federal-state extension partnership dedicated to making the latest and most accurate pest management information available on the World Wide Web. Participating institutions have agreed to a set of standards which ensure science-based, unbiased pest management information." See: http://ipmworld.umn.edu/.
Irrigation Guide: USDA-NRCS National Engineering Handbook: Part 652. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (1997). This manual describes the NRCS- recommended processes for planning, designing, evaluating, and managing irrigation systems. GSA National Forms and Publications Center, 7CAF, 501 W. Felix Street, Warehouse 4 Dock 1, Fort Worth, TX 76115.
Irrigation Management Practices to Protect Ground Water and Surface Water Quality, State of Washington. Washington State Department of Ecology and Washington State University Cooperative Extension (1995). The handbook emphasizes a systems approach to irrigation management and water quality protection. Introductory material covers water quality issues and the basics of soil-water-plant relationships and irrigation processes. Contact State of Washington, Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 47600, Olympia, Washington 98504-7600.
FORESTRY BMP MANUALS
Sustaining Minnesota Forest Resources: Voluntary Site-level Forest Management Guidelines for Landowners, Loggers, and Resource Managers. Minnesota Forest Resources Council (February 1999). This guidebook was developed as a collaborative statewide effort involving diverse forestry and water quality stakeholders. It provides a set of integrated guidelines that serve as a menu of options which address impacts on forest and water resources. See: http://www.frc.state.mn.us.
Georgia's Best Management Practices for Forestry. Georgia Forestry Commission (January 1999). The purpose of this manual is to inform landowners, foresters, timber buyers, loggers, site preparation and reforestation contractors, and others involved with silvicultural operations about commonsense, economical, and effective practices to minimize soil erosion, stream sedimentation and thermal pollution. See: http://www.gfc.state.ga.us/ForestManagement/documents/GeorgiaForestryBMPManual.pdf.
Wisconsin's Forestry BMPs for Water Quality: A Field Manual for Loggers, Landowners and Land Managers. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry (1997). This field manual lists over 119 BMPs for forestry activities including road building, timber harvesting, prescribed burning and the application of chemicals. To request a publication call: 608-267-7494.
Montana BMPs for Forestry. Montana Department of State Lands, Missoula, Montana. Montana's water quality protection program for forestry involves a combination of regulatory and non-regulatory approaches. Since the 1970s, these non-regulatory Forestry Best Management Practices have provided guidance as minimum water quality protection standards for forestry operations. Phone requests for publication: 406-542-4200. See: http://dnrc.state.mt.us/forestry/serviceforestry/ForestryBestManagementPractices/index1.htm.
Montana Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law and Rules. Montana Department of State Lands, Missoula, Montana. This booklet explains and illustrates the SMZ law and rules as they apply to forest practices. Phone requests for publication: 406-542-4200.
Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water (1993). Developed for use by State Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs, Chapter 3 of this document covers preharvest planning, streamside management areas, road construction and management, timber harvesting, forest regeneration, fire management, revegetation of disturbed areas, forest chemical management, and wetlands forest management. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter3/index.html.
BMP Implementation and Effectiveness
Wisconsin's Forestry BMPs for Water Quality: The 1997 BMP Monitoring Report. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry (PUB-FR-145-99). This document describes the monitoring results from forestry BMP monitoring on timber sales. The monitoring was done to determine the extent to which BMPs were being applied throughout the State, the effectiveness of properly applied BMPs in protecting water quality, and the effects of not applying BMPs where needed. In addition to the findings, the report discusses the general framework and methods used to design the audit, as well as conclusions and recommendations. Phone requests for publication: 608-267-7494.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Forestry BMPs in Meeting Water Quality Goals or Standards. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Publication 1520) (July 1994). The purpose of this document is to help forest managers and their staff develop water-quality monitoring plans to evaluate the effectiveness of forestry BMPs in meeting water-quality goals or standards. It deals with the design of monitoring projects and the selection of variables and methods for monitoring them. Contact: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region (1720 Peachtree Road NW, Atlanta, GA 30367).
Water/ Road Interaction Technology Series. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Program (September 1997). This series is part of an ongoing effort to identify information and methods on hydrological aspects of developing, operating, and managing forest roads by communicating state-of-the-art information, identifying knowledge gaps, and providing a framework for addressing future research and development needs on this subject. Phone requests for publication: 909-599-1267, ext. 246.
Temporary Stream and Wetland Crossing Options for Forest Management. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Report NC-202) (November 1998). The purpose of this document is to fill the information gap relating to options that forest managers are able to pursue when addressing water quality concerns from stream and wetland crossings. It provides detailed information about a broad range of reusable temporary crossing options and identifies research and education needs. Contact: Wood Education and Resource Center, 301 Hardwood Lane, Princeton, WV 24740. Email requests for publication: education@werc-hdw. Phone requests for publication: (304)487-1510. Fax requests for publication: (304)487-6667.
Road Closure and Obliteration in the Forest Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center (Document 7700) (June 1996). This guide is a compilation of information on road closure and obliteration and related watershed restoration work as an aid to resource specialists, engineers, and interdisciplinary teams. Phone requests for publication: 909-599-1267, ext. 246.
Handbook for Forest and Ranch Roads. Mendocino County Resource Conservation District (June 1994). This document is a guide and field manual for anyone involved with roads in the forest or on the ranch. Contains many helpful photographs and illustrations, charts and tips on approaching road building from the planning through construction, maintenance, and closure stages. Phone requests for publication: 707-468-9223.
Riparian Road Guide: Managing Roads to Enhance Riparian Areas. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1994). This guide was written primarily for local government personnel, elected officials, and road designers and contractors in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States. The general principles, however, are applicable in other regions of the country if techniques are modified accordingly. It reviews the impacts of roads on water quality, describes common conflicts, and suggests ways to correct and avoid problems associated with road building in riparian areas. Phone requests for publication: 214-655-7140.
Managing Roads for Wet Meadow Recovery. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region (FHWA-FLP-96-016) (1996). The purpose of this handbook is to provide a reference document for use in understanding wet meadow functions, identifying treatment opportunities, planning and implementing new or remedial treatments, and monitoring results. Available through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161. Phone requests for publication: 703-605-6000 or http://www.ntis.gov/.
Fish Passage Through Culverts. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-FL-90-006); and U.S. Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center (November 1990). This report is intended to review, summarize, and update current information on fish passage through culverts. It is geared primarily toward fish biologists, hydrologists and engineers who will be designing projects which pass fish. Phone requests for publication: 909-599-1267, ext. 246.
Riparian, Wetland and Bottomland Forests
Chesapeake Bay Riparian Handbook: A Guide for Establishing and Maintaining Riparian Forest Buffers. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area (NA-TP-02-97) (1997). The purpose of this handbook is to provide professional land managers and planners with the latest information on the functions, design, establishment, and management of riparian forest buffers. See: http://www.chesapeakebay.net/pubs/subcommittee/nsc/forest/handbook.htm.
Managing Private Non-industrial Forests
Forest*A*Syst: A Self-assessment Guide for Managing Your Forest. The objective of this publication is to encourage owners of forests -- large or small -- to manage that forest for recreation, wildlife and timber, while protecting water quality resources. It is a national model, or prototype, intended to be used by States to tailor to their own needs and purposes. See: http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/pbfiles/PB1679.pdf.
Regulation of Private Forestry Practices by State Governments. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station (Bulletin 605-1995)(1995). A comprehensive overview of state forestry programs, with background information on history and evolution of the legal system relating to forestry practices. The document also describes current program effectiveness and constraints, as well as emerging policy and management issues. Contact: Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, 1420 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108.
Water Quality and BMPs for Loggers An Internet resource providing detailed state-by-state information on BMPs, public agencies, laws, ordinances, maps, related links, training and education opportunities. See: http://www.usabmp.net/.
Water Quality Effects and Nonpoint Source Control for Forestry: An Annotated Bibliography. EPA-841/B-93-005 (August 1993). An annotated bibliography covering instream studies, roads, timber harvest, streamside management areas, wetlands, water quality monitoring and modeling. Available through the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), (800) 490-9198.
Maryland Clean Marina Guidebook. Maryland Department of Natural Resources (1998). This Guidebook was developed in response to the CZARA program and the State's need to strengthen their nonpoint source pollution controls at marinas and recreational boating facilities. The material presented covers key CZARA management measures with supporting BMPs organized under environmental concerns, legal setting, applicable BMPs, and information sources. Also presented are State and federal laws and regulations as enforceable policies and mechanisms affecting marinas. For copies contact: Maryland DNR, Waterway Resources Division, Annapolis, MD 21401; or call 410-260-8770.
Environmental Guide for Marinas: Controlling Nonpoint Source and Storm Water Pollution in Rhode Island. Rhode Island Sea Grant, University of Rhode Island (September 1996). This Environmental Guide provides information on pollutants and potential impacts at marinas, State operations and maintenance plan requirements, oil spill response plan, and BMP worksheets that marina operators can use to develop the required O&M Plan for controlling polluted runoff at marinas. The Environmental Guide is designed to meet the State's Coastal Nonpoint Source Control Plan requirements for marinas and recreational boating under CZARA. For copies contact: Rhode Island Sea Grant, Communications Office, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882-1197.
BMP Examples for Alaska: Compilation and Assessment of Harbor, Marina and Boat Operations and Maintenance. Neil Ross Consultants and Concepts Unlimited, State of Alaska (June 1995). The purpose of this document is to assist State Harbormasters in understanding pollution sources impacting harbor waters and how to prevent pollution problems with best management practices. 257 BMPs are organized under six categories in table format covering polluted runoff, solid waste, liquid materials, petroleum leaks and spills, boat sewage, and vessel cleaning. Generalized costs data are included for operation and maintenance, and construction. An annotated reference list and a discussion of the literature search process are included as appendices. For copies contact: Neil Ross Consultants, PO Box 56, Kingston, RI 02881; or call 401-782-2116.
Best Management Practices for Marinas and Boatyards: Controlling Nonpoint Pollution in Maine. Maine Department of Environmental Protection (December 1995). This practical manual contains a discussion of common pollutants and their potential impacts in marina waters. BMPs are discussed and listed as guidance to manage runoff from stormwater, solid waste, fuel and hydrocarbons, hazardous materials, liquid waste, and sewage discharge from boats at both recreational and commercial marinas and boatyards. The manual includes CZARA and CWA requirements and descriptive material from EPA's management measures guidance, but stresses that it is not a regulatory document. Included in the manual are useful fact sheets, a model oil spill response plan, and operations and maintenance plan based on the Rhode Island model. For copies contact: Maine DEP, Augusta, Maine 04333; or call 207-287-7688.
Marina Pollution Prevention Manual. University of California Sea Grant Extension Program (1995). A useful manual in "fact sheet" format outlining BMPs for voluntary compliance by marina operators and boaters calling attention to the potential problems caused by improper operation and maintenance: topics cover boat cleaning, engine and hull maintenance, oil and hazardous waste disposal, fuel handling, and marina staff training. For copies contact: California Sea Grant Program, University of California, La Jolla, CA 92093-0232; or call 858-534-4440.
Best Management Practices for Coastal Marinas. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (August 1992). This report provides an overview of potential impacts from marina facilities, identifies common pollutants targeted for control, and operational BMPs for addressing potential impacts. The report includes selected State policies and mechanisms for implementing management practices. Six existing State marinas were surveyed to review a variety of harbor settings and functions to determine impacts attributable to pollutants found at these marinas. The document is generally based on the CZARA management measures guidance with similar marina and recreational boating BMPs. For copies contact: Connecticut DEP, 79 Elm Street, Hartford, CT 06106-5127.
Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water (1993). Developed for use by State Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs, Chapter 5 of this document covers two major categories of marina management measures for: siting and design; and marina boat operation and maintenance. Find it on the Internet at: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter5/index.html
Clean Marine Practices Handbook. The Ontario Marina Operators Association, Ontario, Canada (1997). This handbook is intended as an educational tool for owners and operators of marinas and yacht clubs on pollution prevention and reduction practices. The handbook presents a detailed discussion of measures to control water, air, and land pollution from recreational boating activities. Included in the manual are descriptions of pollutants found at marinas, pumpout needs, stormwater management, excerpts of applicable legislation, and recommendations to promote clean marinas through public awareness and voluntary compliance with pollution prevention practices. For copies contact: The Ontario Marina Operators Association, 4 Cataraqui Street, Suite 211, Kingston, Ontario K7K1Z7; or call 613-547-6662.
Clean Marinas - Clear Value: Environmental and Business Success Stories. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-841-R-96-003) (August 1996). This document features 25 marina case studies focusing on the economic benefits realized by marina managers who have incorporated management measures at their marinas. The return on their investment in developing a clean marina exceeded expectations both in profits and increased business. This report intends to show that managing polluted runoff through environmental enhancements is good for business, good for boating, and good for the environment. The document includes tables on cost/benefit, general benefits from environmental changes, and management measures employed at each of the marinas studied. For copies contact: U.S. EPA, Nonpoint Source Control Branch, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W., (4503-F) Washington, D.C. 20460; or call (202)260-7009. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/marinas/index.html
Design Handbook for Recreational Boating and Fishing Facilities. States Organization for Boating Access, Washington, D.C. (April 1996). A practical handbook describing the techniques and best practices for shoreline protection, boat ramp design, locating restroom facilities, and operations and maintenance of waterside components. For copies contact: SOBA, P.O. Box 25655, Washington, D.C. 20007.
Clean Marina+Clean Boating+Clean Water Partnership: A Resource Manual for Pollution Prevention in Marinas. Puget Soundkeeper Alliance, Puget Sound Water Quality Authority (January 1995). This manual provides a resource workbook for marina owners and operators. It contains boater tips on when and where to use best management practices to prevent and reduce NPS pollutants from entry into waters of Puget Sound. Federal and Washington State environmental laws (including CZARA and marina management measures) and penalties for noncompliance are explained. A partnership approached between marinas and boaters is encouraged as the way to control pollution and to protect the environment and beauty of Puget Sound. The BMPs discussed include waste oil and spills, fuel dock operation and maintenance, bilge water discharge, pumpout facilities, boat cleaning, solid and hazardous waste disposal. For copies contact: Puget Soundkeeper Alliance; or call 260/286-1309.
* means the organization is likely to charge for the listed document
General NPS Controls for Urban and Urbanizing Areas
Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 840-B-92-002)(January 1993). Chapter 4 contains a description of water quality problems caused by urban nonpoint sources of pollution as well as management measures that represent performance expectations for urban controls to be implemented in states with approved coastal zone management programs. Management practices (referred to in other documents as "best management practices (BMPs)" are described that can be used to economically achieve the performance expectations. Contact National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), (800) 490-9198; and See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/.
Watershed Protection Techniques. Center for Watershed Protection, Silver Spring, MD.* A periodic bulletin on urban watershed restoration and protection tools including runoff management practices or BMPs. Contains often-cited technical notes that describe, compare, and evaluate urban controls as well as the effects of runoff both with and without controls. See: http://www.cwp.org/.
Fundamentals of Urban Runoff Management: Technical and Institutional Issues. Horner, R.R., J.J. Skupien, E.H. Livingston, and H.E. Shaver (August 1994). Terrene Institute, Washington, DC (in cooperation with USEPA).* Part I contains clear and concise runoff and pollutant impact assessment and technical information on structural runoff controls in a logical sequence. Nonstructural alternatives are cleverly imbedded in Part II, which addresses institutional structures and frameworks which will help ensure implementation and continuance of control programs. Call (703) 548-5473.
Stormwater Strategies: Community Responses to Runoff Pollution. Natural Resources Defense Council (May 1999).* This study highlights some of the most effective and efficient watershed and municipal examples of nonpoint source and storm water control programs and activities in the country. By example, communities can use these case studies in developing and implementing their own runoff control programs. See: http://www.nrdc.org/.
Best General Web Addresses
Center for Watershed Protection. Contains model ordinances, BMP effectiveness information, and other information on urban pollution and controls, with a concentration on watershed-based approaches. See: http://www.cwp.org/.
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) National Stormwater BMP Database. Contains information on the effectiveness of urban BMPs in removing pollutants from urban runoff. Only studies which conform to established protocols are entered into the database. See: http://www.bmpdatabase.org/.
Terrene Institute. This organization has produced a number of very good general publications for use by the public as well as by watershed and local managers in addressing issues and problems concerning urban and other sources of nonpoint source pollution. To order call (703) 548-5473 or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
City of Fort Worth, Texas: Municipal and County Storm Water Programs. The City of Fort Worth, Texas, has a web site that contains hot-links to municipal and county government storm water programs around the United States. There is also a description of Fort Worth's NPDES Storm water Phase I permit requirements, including construction and new development. See: http://www.fortworthgov.org/tpw/info/default.aspx?id=5768
Low Impact Development Institute Web Site. This web site contains general information on Low Impact Development BMPs and case studies as well as hot-links to related organizations and projects. See: http://www.lowimpactdevelopment.org/
Nonpoint Education for Municipal Officials (NEMO). NEMO provides municipal officials with technical assistance and training in linking land use to water quality. See: http://nemonet.uconn.edu/.
Model Ordinances to Protect Local Resources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (November 1999). EPA has developed a web site that contains printable and "create-your-own" ordinances as well as links to other web sites. Ordinances include aquatic buffers, erosion and sediment control, open space development, storm water control operation and maintenance, illicit discharges, post construction runoff, source water protection, and miscellaneous ordinances (golf courses, etc.). See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/ordinance/
Rapid Watershed Planning Handbook. The Center for Watershed Protection (October, 1998). This Handbook was written to assist watershed associations and local governments in developing effective and low cost watershed protection plans. Eight steps are described in detail including how to identify and classify subwatersheds, protect and restore water resources, and evaluate progress. The document emphasizes resource identification, evaluation, and planning. See: http://www.cwp.org/
Urbanization and Streams: Studies of Hydrologic Impacts. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-R-97-009) (December 1997). This report includes references and case studies that document the impacts of urbanization on water quality, habitat and aquatic biota. Available through National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), (800) 490-9198.
A Watershed Approach to Urban Runoff: Handbook for Decisionmakers. Terrene Institute (in cooperation with U.S. EPA Region 5) (March 1996).* An informative primer for local decision makers and watershed organizations on assessing the water quality of watersheds, identifying contributing sources, and prioritizing watershed resources to implement effective nonstructural and structural BMPs. BMPs are summarized, and a list of resources to obtain additional information is provided. Call (703) 548-5473 or e-mail email@example.com
Technical Assistance and Team Training in Linking Land Use to Water Quality. Nonpoint Education for Municipal Officials (NEMO). NEMO provides municipal officials with technical assistance and training in linking land use to water quality. See: http://nemonet.uconn.edu/
Site - Level Planning
Environmental Land Planning Series: Site Planning for Urban Stream Protection. Schueler, T. (December 1995). (Prepared by the Center for Watershed Protection, Silver Spring, Maryland, for the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, Washington, DC.). This series is for all audiences, presenting a clear and understandable description of the significance of imperviousness in a watershed. A description of planning strategies to protect urban streams by reducing imperviousness and increasing green space is also included. See http://www.cwp.org/.
Better Site Design: A Handbook for Changing Development Rules in Your Community. The Center for Watershed Protection (August 1998). This handbook was prepared for local planners, engineers, developers, and officials to help them understand development principles that can be used to create environmentally sensitive, economically viable, and locally appropriate development. See: http://www.cwp.org/.
Low-Impact Development Design Strategies. Prince Georges County, MD (EPA 841-B-00-003) (January 2000). Low-Impact Development Hydrologic Analysis. Prince Georges County, MD (EPA 841-B-00-002) (January 2000). These two documents contain a description of LID principles, programmatic considerations, design strategies and an example of an analytic and computational procedure to use in designing appropriate runoff treatment systems. The strategies document (003) was prepared for local planners, engineers, developers, and officials to describe how to develop and implement LID methods from an integrated design perspective. The hydrologic analysis document (002) is a companion technical document and it contains a methodology that can be used to estimate changes in site hydrology due to new development and also to design appropriate treatment systems to maintain the predevelopment hydrology of the site. For Low-Impact Development Design Strategies , See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lidnatl.pdf.
Low-Impact Development Hydrologic Analysis is available through National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), (800) 490-9198.
Conservation Design for Stormwater Management.* Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control and The Environmental Management Center of the Brandywine Conservancy (September 1997). This document describes methodologies for configuring new developments to increase water quality protection and pervious surfaces by reducing lot sizes thereby increasing greenspace and common use areas. Call: (302) 739-4411.
Storm Water Management for Construction Activities: Developing Pollution Prevention Plans and Best Management Practices. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 833-R-92-001) (October 1992). EPA's guidance on how to prepare a storm water pollution prevention plan for NPDES Storm Water Phase I construction activities. Includes erosion and sediment control BMPs and other control requirements for construction sites from site evaluation to final stabilization. Available through National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), (800) 490-9198.
Notable State Manuals and Guidance Manuals
Erosion and Sediment Control Planning and Design Manual. Field Manual and Inspector's Guide* North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Land Resources. Addresses planning design, implementation, and inspection of erosion and sediment control BMPs. Call: (919) 733-3833.
Sediment and Stormwater Management Certified Construction Reviewer Course and associated Delaware State and DOT Standards/Specifications* State of Delaware, Delaware Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Division of Soil and Water Conservation. Contains descriptions of Delaware's erosion and sediment control and runoff control BMPs as well as their certification requirements for contractors. Call: (302) 739-4411.
Tennessee Online BMP manual. City of Knoxville (Still under development). This draft online erosion and sediment control manual provides information on the design, inspection, and maintenance of structural and nonstructural BMPs that are used in the City of Knoxville, TN. The manual is similar to stormwater guidance prepared for the California Stormwater Quality Task Force and Caltrans. See: http://www.ci.knoxville.tn.us/engineering/bmp_manual/
Controls for New Development
Environmental Land Planning Series: Site Planning for Urban Stream Protection. Schueler, T. December, 1995. Prepared by the Center for Watershed Protection, Silver Spring, Maryland, for the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, Washington, DC. (See list for Site-Level Planning.) See: http://www.cwp.org
Better Site Design: A Handbook for Changing Development Rules in Your Community. * The Center for Watershed Protection (August 1998). (See list for Site-Level Planning.) See: http://www.cwp.org
2000 Maryland Storm Water Design Manual, Volumes I and II.Volume 1 contains information on BMP siting and design on new development sites to comply with the State's fourteen storm water performance standards. Storm water credits for innovative design are a significant addition. Volume 2 contains detailed technical information including step-by-step design examples. For copies, contact Maryland's Nonpoint Source Program at (410) 537-3000. See: http://www.mde.state.md.us/Programs/WaterPrograms/SedimentandStormwater/index.asp Fact sheet on manual available at: http://www.mde.state.md.us/Programs/WaterPrograms/SedimentandStormwater/stormwater_design/index.asp.
Storm water BMP Design Supplement for Cold Climates.* Caraco and Claytor, Center for Watershed Protection (in cooperation with EPA) (December 1997). This manual addresses some of the unique challenges of design and maintenance of runoff BMPs in cold climates and recommends strategies to make BMPs in these regions more effective. See: http://www.cwp.org
Washington State Department of Ecology Website.
This website contains information on Washington State's Nonpoint
Source program and NPDES stormwater programs. Refer to the publications
list. The draft BMP manual for Western Washington State is worth
reviewing to learn about Washington's approach to protecting the
hydrological regime of streams. Also noteworthy are "Planning as
Process: A Community Guide to Watershed Planning" (Ecology Publication
#99-01-WQ); and "Watershed Urbanization and the Decline of Salmon
in Puget Sound Streams" by Dr. Chris May. The Community Guide is
a useful reference for community involvement in the planning process.
The paper by Chris May draws a link between urbanization and salmonid
impacts. See Website: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/
Caltrans Storm Water Quality Handbook. "This handbook is intended to provide background information on Caltran's program to control water pollution and to standardize the process for preparing and implementing the Water Pollution Control Program (WPCP) and Storm Water Pollution Prevention Program (SWPPP). Caltrans requires contractors to prepare and implement a program to control water pollution during the construction of all projects. An updated handbook is expected to be released in the fall of 2000." See: http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/construc/stormwater.html
Economic Benefits of Runoff Controls. This document contains a description of studies that document increases in property values and rental prices when properly designed runoff control facilities are used as visual amenities. Hard copies are available through National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), (800) 490-9198. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/runoff.html#4
Operation and Maintenance
Operation, Maintenance, and Management of Stormwater Management Systems. Livingston, Shaver, Skupien, and Horner (August 1997). WMI (in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)* Note: Includes Stormwater Management Inspection Forms as a Separate Supplement. The manual contains a comprehensive review of the technical, educational, and institutional elements needed to assure that storm water management systems are designed, built, maintained, and operated properly during and after construction. Fact sheets on 13 commonly used BMPs are included. Call: (850) 926-5310.
Clean Water in Your Watershed: A Citizens Guide to Watershed Protection.* Terrene Institute (in cooperation with USEPA Region 6) (October 1993). An easy to understand and well illustrated guide to help citizens work with local, state, and federal government agencies to design and implement successful watershed protection and restoration projects. Step-by-step recommendations are provided. Call (703) 548-5473 or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
HANDLE WITH CARE: Your Guide to Preventing Water Pollution. Terrene Institute (1991).* A simple but effective citizens guide to problems due to rainfall and runoff in urban areas and what citizens and homeowners can do to reduce the harmful effects of runoff on water quality. Call (703) 548-5473 or e-mail email@example.com
Turning the Tide; A Citizen's Guide to Reducing Nonpoint Source Pollution.* Harborwatch, Inc., S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control. A concise brochure that describes urban nonpoint pollution and what actions citizens can take to reduce pollution in urban areas. Includes checklists. Call: (803) 734-5300.
Baybook: A guide to Reducing Water Pollution at Home. Chesapeake Bay, Inc.* Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay et. al. (March 1993). A lay publication to create awareness and actions to reduce water pollution. Homeowners are the target audience for this document. Call: (410) 377- 6270.
Bayscapes: environmentally sound landscapes for the Chesapeake Bay. Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay (1994). A set of comprehensive fact sheets which contain detailed actions homeowners can take to implement environmentally friendly landscaping. Addresses pesticides, nutrients, erosion control, pesticides, and habitat diversity. Contains checklists for each fact sheet. Call: (804) 755-0951 or 1-800-662-CRIS.
STREAM RESTORATION DOCUMENTS
Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes, and Practices. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (EPA 841-R-98-900) (October 1998). A cooperative effort of 17 federal agencies resulted in this compendium of stream corridor restoration expert advice and field-tested methods. A CD-ROM is also available. Available through National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), (800) 490-9198. Overview at http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/stream_restoration/newgra.html
Izaak Walton League Save Our Streams Program (January, 1995). Includes A Citizen's Streambank Restoration Handbook, a video, and personal assistance.* A primer to help citizens, government planners, and decision makers understand channelization and streambank restoration techniques. Includes case studies, an annotated bibliography, and restoration contacts. Call: (800) BUG-IWLA.
Restoring Streams in Cities: A Guide for Planners, Policymakers, and Citizens. Ann Riley (1998). "This books contains a logical sequence of land-use planning, site design and watershed restoration measures along with stream channel modifications and floodproofing strategies that can be used in place of destructive and expensive public works projects." Contact Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20009, phone: 202-232-7933, fax: 202-234-1328, firstname.lastname@example.org; or the distribution center at 58440 Main Street, P.O. Box 7, Covelo, CA 95428, phone: 1-800-828-1302, fax: 707-983-6414, email@example.com.
Urban Stream Restoration: A Video Tour of Ecological Restoration Techniques.* Includes information on six urban stream restoration sites with detailed instructions and graphic illustrations. Includes bioengineering stablilization techniques, recreating channel shapes and meanders, daylighting of buried creeks, and vegetated flood controls. Led by Ann Riely, Executive Director of the Waterways Restoration Institute in Berkeley, CA. See: http://www.noltemedia.com
Monitoring Guidance for Determining the Effectiveness of Nonpoint Source Controls. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water (EPA 841-B-96-004) (1997). The manual gives an overview of nonpoint source pollution and covers the development of a monitoring plan, data analysis, quality assurance/quality control, and biological monitoring. Available through the National Service Center for Environmental Publications at (800) 490-9198.
National Handbook of Water Quality Monitoring. Part 600, National Water Quality Handbook (1996). Covers statistical design, variable selection, sampling location, sample analysis, and much more. Contact U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service for a copy. See: ftp://ftp.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/downloads/wqam/wqm1.pdf
Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Wadeable Streams and Rivers: periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish, second edition. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999). This document describes refined and revised methods for conducting cost-effective biological assessments of streams and small rivers. It focuses on periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish assemblages, and on assessing the quality of the physical habitat. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/monitoring/rbp/
Techniques for Tracking, Evaluating, and Reporting the Implementation of Nonpoint Source Control Measures -- Agriculture. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 841-B-97-010) (1997). Focusing specifically on monitoring agricultural BMPs, this manual covers site selection, sample size estimation, sampling, and results evaluation and presentation. Contact the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (800) 490-9198; or see: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/agfinal.html
Techniques for Tracking, Evaluating, and Reporting The Implementation of Nonpoint Source Control Measures for Forestry. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (July 1997). This guidance is intended to assist state, regional, and local environmental professionals in tracking the implementation of BMPs used to control nonpoint source pollution generated by forestry practices. Information is provided on methods for sample site selection, sample size estimation, sampling, and result evaluation and presentation. The focus of the guidance is on the statistical approaches needed to properly collect and analyze data that are accurate and defensible. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/forestry/index.html.
Techniques for Tracking, Evaluating, and Reporting the Implementation of Nonpoint Source Control Measures - Urban Field Test Version. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 841-B-937-011) (July 1998 - Update to Final in Progress). Helps local officials focus limited resources by establishing statistical sampling to assess, inspect, or evaluate a representative set of BMPs, erosion and sediment controls, and onsite wastewater treatment systems. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/urban2.html
Monitoring Guidance for Determining Effectiveness of Nonpoint Source Controls, Final. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA/841-B-96-004) (September 1997). This guidance addresses design of monitoring programs to assess water quality to determine impacts of nonpoint sources and effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) used as controls. Available through the National Service Center for Environmental Publications at (800) 490-9198.
Volunteer Stream Monitoring: a methods manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1997). This document covers the basic elements of stream monitoring, how to conduct a watershed survey, how to measure various water quality components, and how to manage and present monitoring data. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/monitoring/volunteer/stream/
A State and Local Government Guide to Environmental Program Funding Alternatives. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 841-K-94-001) (January 1994). Provides an overview of traditional (nongovernmental) funding mechanisms and innovative approaches for funding environmental programs. Hard copy available through National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP), (800) 490-9198. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/funding.html
Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection (Second Edition). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 841-B-99-003) (December 1999). Provides a comprehensive summary of federal grant and loan programs that be used at the local level to support watershed projects. Also contains references to other publications as well as web sites on funding assistance. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/watershed/wacademy/fund.html
Clean Water State Revolving Loan Web Site A one-stop-shopping site for learning about the Clean Water State Revolving Loan Fund (CWSRF). Includes information on eligibility, repayment, and restrictions. See: http://www.epa.gov/OWM/cwfinance/index.htm
"Year of Clean Water" NPS Outreach Materials Download EPA's many outreach materials developed in 2003 for the President's "Year of Clean Water" celebration, including a bookmark, a poster, a crossword puzzle placemat, and even a design for a pop-up sponge that promotes low impact development. Or download the order form to order these materials in bulk (while supplies last). See: http://www.epa.gov/nps/outreach.html
Nonpoint Source / Polluted Runoff Pointers(Factsheets) View the Web versions of the 11 fact sheets on NPS pollution, developed by EPA's NPS Control Branch in 1996. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/facts/
EPA's Guidance Documents for Conducting Watershed Outreach Download comprehensive guidance documents in the EPA-supported "Getting in Step" series or take EPA's Web-based training module on conducting watershed outreach. See: http://www.epa.gov/owow/watershed/outreach/documents/
Stormwater Outreach An EPA Web page where you can quickly download all the latest brochures, fact sheets, or other outreach materials-some of which are quite novel. Instructions for bulk ordering these items are also included. See: http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwatermonth.cfm
"After the Storm" Half-Hour TV Special Co-produced by EPA and The Weather Channel, this made-for-TV show highlights three case studies (Santa Monica Bay, the Mississippi River Basin/Gulf of Mexico, and New York City) where polluted runoff threatens important water resources. The program highlights the land-water connection and presents tips on how we can prevent polluted runoff. See: http://www.epa.gov/weatherchannel/
Public Education & Outreach on Stormwater Impacts This EPA Web page differs from the Stormwater Outreach page noted above in that it is more extensive; is more specifically geared toward addressing the needs of the NPDES Storm Water regulated communities; and serves as a useful primer on various categories of stormwater impacts. See: http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/menuofbmps/index.cfm
Information on Effective Outreach Approaches
Dr. Doug McKenzie-Mohr's Community Based Social Marketing Web Site for Fostering Sustainable Behavior This Web site offers a comprehensive framework toward overcoming barriers to environmentally positive behavior change. See: http://www.cbsm.com/
David Gershon's Empowerment Institute--Livable Neighborhood Water Stewardship Program This Web site offers a direct, hands-on way of applying behavior change principles in a ready-made program to reduce NPS pollution in residential neighborhoods. See: http://empowermentinstitute.net/
Online Flash Presentations for NPS Education
Interactive Urban NPS Presentation This Web-based interactive Flash presentation from the San Antonio Water System provides some basic information on a few aspects of urban NPS pollution in a colorful and innovative way. See: http://www.saws.org/education/H2O_University/Virtual_Classroom/nps.shtml
RoboCow A truly one-of-a-kind presentation of an udderly amazing bovine superhero and her quest to save the world from the ravages of agricultural NPS pollution one farm at a time. This Web-based Flash presentation was first developed with middle and high school students in mind, and is offered on the web courtesy of the Canadian government's Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. See: http://www.agr.gc.ca/pfra/flash/robocow/en/robocow_e.htm
Outreach and Education Materials from Nongovernmental Organizations
Earth 911 Stormwater Resources & Earth 911 Stormwater Public Service Announcements (PSAs) These are related pages from the Earth 911 Web site. The former Web page uses text and graphics to explain the problems and solutions associated with specific urban NPS pollutants in a professional way that is easy for the public to understand. The second page serves as an electronic library of celebrity-studded video PSAs to help get the word out about these same NPS problems and solutions. See: http://www.earth911.org/master.asp?s=lib&a=Water/StormWater/StormWater.inc and http://www.earth911.org/master.asp?s=psa&a=psa/psa.asp
EnviroCast Weather & Watershed Newsletter A well done and informative Web-based newsletter on Chesapeake Bay stormwater and NPS issues. The newsletter is produced by the National Environmental Education & Training Foundation and the Center for Watershed Protection in partnership with StormCenter Communications under a cooperative agreement with EPA. See: http://www.stormcenter.com/envirocast/2003-10-14/index.html
www.stormwatercenter.net is a reference library of fact sheets and other useful resources on watershed protection and runoff control from the Center for Watershed Protection. See: http://www.stormwatercenter.net/
Outreach and Education Materials from State and Local Governments
California NPS Public Education Materials A one-stop collection of colorful posters, fact sheets, and more from all across California, courtesy of American Oceans Campaign/Oceana. See: http://www.americanoceans.org/runoff/epa.htm
Colorado Water Protection Project Learn about the League of Women Voters' "Our Water Colorado" public outreach campaign (funded by EPA) and order the CD to view some excellent multimedia materials, including a thought-provoking bus board and a television PSA with a talking elk. See: http://www.ourwater.org
Los Angeles "Make the Connection" Poster A stunning and beautifully illustrated poster from Los Angeles, California that invites the public to "make the connection" that the storm drains of coastal cities and towns can transport the flotsam and jetsam of urban living (e.g., pet waste, auto fluids, and litter) to the ocean where they can harm coastal habitats. See: http://www.lastormwater.org/WPD/education/edumat.htm
Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Council Urban Small Sites BMP Manual This particularly well done technical manual has very good PDF fact sheets for many structural and nonstructural BMPs, as well as information on good design and housekeeping practices for managing runoff from urban surfaces. See: http://www.metrocouncil.org/environment/Watershed/bmp/manual.htm
Puget Sound Water Quality Consortium Nonpoint Posters and TV PSAs View one of the earliest examples of high quality NPS outreach products. This award-winning poster series has been borrowed and adapted by many communities across the U.S. since being released in 1995 by the Puget Sound Water Quality Consortium. Companion television PSAs can be obtained via the order form link. See: http://www.psat.wa.gov/Programs/Pie_Ed/Water_Ed_Materials.htm
Texas NPS Education Campaign Funded largely by EPA's Section 319 grants, this multimedia campaign features a Sharpei dog imploring his owners to "please pick up" after him in formats as varied as a refrigerator magnet and a billboard; Spanish and English radio ads of a talking storm drain upset about being used as a homeowner's personal dumping ground; and many other clever outreach materials that urge people to "please don't feed the storm drain." See: http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/assistance/education/nps.html
Think Blue San Diego NPS Outreach Campaign This web site is part of San Diego's award-winning mass media NPS outreach campaign designed to capture the public's attention on the cumulative impacts of individual contributions of pet waste, auto fluids, car washing, and other sources of pollution that have the potential to foul southern California's creeks, bays, and ocean beaches. The campaign is designed to change individual behaviors and reduce the number of beach closings associated with polluted stormwater runoff. See: http://www.thinkbluesd.org/