Example Photographs of Best Management Practices (BMP's)
Agricultural runoff contains pollutants including nutrients,
sediment, animal wastes, salts, and pesticides. Many practices
can be used to control runoff and reduce the erosion and transport
of sediment from agricultural fields. These practices include
conservation tillage, contour strip-cropping, terraces, filter
strips, sediment retention ponds, and grade stabilization structures.
Drinking From Alternative Water Source
Installation of alternative drinking water sources such as a
trough, may help keep livestock out of streams, thus protecting
streambanks and water quality.
- Conservation Tillage
Conservation tillage includes any tillage or planting system
that maintains at least 30 percent of the soil surface covered
by residue after planting to reduce soil erosion by water or
wind. Surface residues reduce soil compaction from raindrops
and provide soil cover during critical times in the cropping
in the stream
Animal waste, including manure and urinary waste can enter streams
directly when cattle wade in and around the water. Animals also
trample streambanks and damage fish habitat. Animal wastes deposited
in waterbodies can accelerate eutrophication, contaminate water
used for shell fishing, swimming, and drinking. Streambank fencing
is one way to protect streams from livestock damage.
- Contour Strips
Contour strip farming reduces erosion and sediment production,
thus decreasing the transport of sediment and related pollutants
to receiving waters. Under this practice, sloping land is farmed
across the slopes to impede runoff and soil movement downhill.
- Cattle Crossing
Stream crossings provide a controlled crossing or watering access
point for livestock. By restricting cattle crossing to a limited
area, streambank erosion and streambed trampling are reduced,
protecting water quality and aquatic habitat.
Storm drain stenciling programs can be effective tools to reduce
illegal dumping of litter, oil, pesticides and other toxic substances
down urban runoff drainage systems. These programs serve as
educational reminders to the public that storm drains often
discharge untreated runoff directly into coastal waters.
- Shoreline Stabilization
Shoreline stabilization techniques can be effective in controlling
coastal erosion. Some coastal structures, such as a headland
breakwater systems, control shoreline erosion and also provide
a community beach.
- Vegetated Buffers
Strips of vegetation established between a pollution source
and a waterbody remove pollutants in runoff. These buffers vary
in width and can be designed as a vegetated filter strip, a
wetland, or a riparian area.
- Logging Along Streams
An adverse impact of timber harvesting is the increase in stream
water temperatures resulting from removal of streamside vegetation.
In addition, residual logs, slash, litter, and soil organic
matter can alter streamflows and adversely affect water quality
by causing increased biochemical oxygen demand.
Constructed wetlands and multiple-pond systems remove pollutants
by impounding runoff to control runoff rates and settle and
retain suspended solids and associated pollutants.
- Shoreline Revegetation
Preservation and protection of shorelines and streambanks can
be accomplished through many approaches, such as soil bioengineering.
This refers to the installation of living plant materials as
a main structural component in controlling erosion caused by
- Truck-wash Pads
Washdown areas are specifically designed to prevent construction
vehicles from transporting sediment from a construction site
to roads and surface waters.