The SNAP program has reviewed substitutes for the
following industrial sectors:
& Air Conditioning
- end-uses typically use a refrigerant in a vapor
compression cycle to cool and/or dehumidify a
substances or space, like a refrigerator cabinet,
room, office building, or warehouse.
Foam Blowing Agents
- encompasses a wide variety of applications
including refrigerators buildings, automobiles,
furniture, packaging and many more. The blowing
agent, which was typically an ODS, is used to propel
liquid plastic resin, and in the case of foam used
for insulation, functions as an insulating component
of the foam.
- are used to remove oil, grease, solder flux, and
Fire Suppression and
- have used halons in many applications because
they are electrically non-conductive, dissipate
rapidly without residue, are safe for limited human
exposure, and are extremely efficient in
extinguishing most types of fires. Because of their
strong ozone depletion potential, the Montreal
Protocol required the earliest production and import
phaseout of halons in the U.S. in 1994.
- are substances stored under pressure and then
released as a suspension of particles in air.
- kill microorganisms on medical equipment and
devices. SNAP has identified alternatives to blends
of 88% CFC-12 and 12% ethylene oxide, known as
"12/88." In that blend, ethylene oxide sterilizes the
equipment and CFC-12 is a dilutent solvent to form a
- is the process of puffing leaves of tobacco to
decrease the volume of tobacco used in cigarette
production. SNAP has identified alternatives to
CFC-11 for tobacco expansion.
- traditionally contain solid components that are
suspended in a solvent, spread over a surface and
bond to it, and then allow the solvent to evaporate.
Prior to the Montreal Protocol, the ozone-depleting
substance methyl chloroform was often used as the
carrier solvent in adhesives, coatings, and