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SNAP Industrial Sectors

The SNAP program has reviewed substitutes for the following industrial sectors:

Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
end-uses typically use a refrigerant in a vapor compression cycle to cool and/or dehumidify a substances or space, like a refrigerator cabinet, room, office building, or warehouse.

Foam Blowing Agents
encompasses a wide variety of applications including refrigerators buildings, automobiles, furniture, packaging and many more. The blowing agent, which was typically an ODS, is used to propel liquid plastic resin, and in the case of foam used for insulation, functions as an insulating component of the foam.

Cleaning Solvents
are used to remove oil, grease, solder flux, and other contaminants.

Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection
have used halons in many applications because they are electrically non-conductive, dissipate rapidly without residue, are safe for limited human exposure, and are extremely efficient in extinguishing most types of fires. Because of their strong ozone depletion potential, the Montreal Protocol required the earliest production and import phaseout of halons in the U.S. in 1994.

are substances stored under pressure and then released as a suspension of particles in air.

kill microorganisms on medical equipment and devices. SNAP has identified alternatives to blends of 88% CFC-12 and 12% ethylene oxide, known as "12/88." In that blend, ethylene oxide sterilizes the equipment and CFC-12 is a dilutent solvent to form a non-flammable blend.

Tobacco Expansion
is the process of puffing leaves of tobacco to decrease the volume of tobacco used in cigarette production. SNAP has identified alternatives to CFC-11 for tobacco expansion.

Adhesives, Coatings & Inks
traditionally contain solid components that are suspended in a solvent, spread over a surface and bond to it, and then allow the solvent to evaporate. Prior to the Montreal Protocol, the ozone-depleting substance methyl chloroform was often used as the carrier solvent in adhesives, coatings, and inks.

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