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Expediting the Review of Alternatives to the Organophosphates

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

Committee to Advise on
Reassessment and Transition

Paper # 12

Expediting the Review of Alternatives
to the Organophosphates

How does EPA prioritize its registration?

  • In Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 97-2, EPA announced that it would prioritize pending applications in the registration queue utilizing the following criteria:

Alternatives to Methyl Bromide

"Reduced-Risk" Pesticides

USDA-EPA Vulnerable Crop/Pest Combinations

Minor Uses

Trade Irritants

Other Registrant-Identified Priorities

  • On its own initiative EPA amended these criteria, through PR Notice 98-7, to include non-"reduced-risk" alternatives to organophosphates (OPs), ranking such applications just below "reduced-risk" pesticides.
  • At the beginning of each fiscal year, EPA ranks the applications pending in its registration queue, using these criteria, and selects approximately 18 to 20 new conventional chemical decision candidates and approximately 250 to 275 new use candidates for evaluation.

How does EPA designate an application as an OP alternative?

  • Registrants typically must request OP alternative status by preparing an OP alternative rationale, as described in PR Notice 97-3. The rationale includes a registrant-prepared discussion of the following characteristics of the proposed alternative:

Human Health Effects

Ecological Effects and Environmental Fate

Risk Discussion, including aggregate and cumulative impacts (if known)

Comparative Risk Discussion with existing registered alternatives

Pest Resistance and Management

Comparative Product Performance (Efficacy Discussion)

Comparative Market Share Information

  • EPA’s "Reduced-Risk" Pesticide Committee evaluates these rationales and makes decisions about whether the registrant has effectively made a case that the proposed use presents opportunities for risk reduction and is likely to reduce the use of OPs.
  • The Agency welcomes input from growers in the identification of potential OP alternatives. In fact, the Agency has accelerated the reviews for some of the emerging OP alternatives based upon input from the user community.

What progress has EPA made in registering OP alternatives?

  • Since FQPA, the average registration timeframe for a new conventional "OP Alternative" is 23 months compared to 28-35 months for non-"reduced-risk"/non-"OP Alternative" conventional chemicals. The average registration timeframe for new uses for these chemicals is 13 months compared to 31-47 months for non-"reduced-risk"/non-"OP alternatives."
  • Only 4 of approximately 45 (10%) of the new conventional chemicals pending in the registration queue have been designated by EPA as "OP alternatives." EPA expects to complete its decision-making for these chemicals within the next 18 months, 2 by the end of December 2000.
  • Fewer than 100 of the more than 700 pending new use actions (less than 15%) have been designated by EPA as "OP alternatives." Most of these actions are likely to be completed within the next 18 months.

What OP alternatives have been registered?

OP Alternatives Registered Since Passage of the FQPA






Below-ground termite control (bait station)


Termite Control


Above-ground termite control (bait station)


Cotton, Pome Fruit


Ornamentals, Tobacco, and Tuberous & Corm Vegetables


Citrus, Cotton, Fruiting Vegetables, Pome Fruit, Tree Nuts, Walnuts


Almonds, Apples, Barley, Beans, Buckwheat, Cilantro, Citrus, Cole Crops, Cotton, Cucurbits, Field Corn, Fruiting Vegetables, Leafy Vegetables, Legumes, Millet, Oats, Peas, Pistachio, Popcorn, Rye, Sorghum, Soybeans, Stone Fruit, Sweet Corn, Tropical Fruit, Tuberous & Corm Vegetables, Turnip Greens, Watercress, Wheat


Berries, Brassica, Canola, Cotton, Cranberries, Fruiting Vegetables, Leafy Brassica, Leafy Greens, Leaf Petioles, Pecans, Peppermint, Pome Fruit, Spearmint, Sugarcane, Tree Nuts, Turnips

What OP alternatives are pending in EPA’s registration pipeline?


Pending OP Alternatives




Acetamiprid Canola, Citrus, Cole Crops, Cotton, Fruiting Vegetables, Grapes, Leafy Vegetables, Mustard Seed, Ornamentals, Pome Fruit "Reduced-Risk" New Chemical FY2001 Decision Candidate Joint Review with Canada
Bifenazate Apples, Cotton, Grapes, Hops, Nectarines, Peaches, Pears, Plums, Prunes, Strawberries "Reduced-Risk" New Uses Likely FY2001 Decision Candidate
Deltamethrin Brassica, Bulb Vegetables, Cucurbits, Field Corn, Fruiting Vegetables, Leafy Vegetables, Pome Fruit, Root & Tuber Vegetables, Sorghum, Soybeans, Stone Fruit, Sunflowers, Tree Nuts Likely FY2001 Decision Candidate
Emamectin Benzoate Cotton, Fruiting Vegetables, Tobacco Likely FY2001 Decision Candidate
Fipronil Fire Ant Control, Wasp & Hornet Spray Likely FY2001 Decision Candidate
Imidacloprid Celery, Citrus FY2000 Decision Candidate
Indoxacarb Cotton, Fruiting Vegetables, Head and Stem Brassica, Lettuce, Pome Fruit, Sweet Corn "Reduced-Risk" New Chemical FY2000 Decision Candidate
Lambda-cyhalothrin Dry Beans, Dry Peas, Eggplant, Green Beans, Green Peas, Peppers, Small Grains, Sugarcane Likely FY2001 Decision Candidate
Methoxyfenozide Cole Crops, Field Corn, Fruiting Vegetables, Grapes, Leafy Vegetables, Sweet Corn "Reduced-Risk" New Chemical FY2001 Decision Candidate
Milbemectin Pome Fruit, Strawberries "Reduced-Risk" New Chemical FY2001 Decision Candidate
Pymetrozine Brassica, Cotton, Leafy Vegetables, Pome Fruit "Reduced-Risk" New Uses FY2000 Decision Candidate
Pyriproxyfen Food Handling Establishments "Reduced-Risk" New Use FY2000 Decision Candidate
Spinosad Cattle "Reduced-Risk" New Use Likely FY2001 Decision Candidate
Thiamethoxam Barley, Brassica, Canola, Cotton, Cucurbits, Fruiting Vegetables, Leafy Vegetables, Ornamentals, Pet Applications, Pome Fruit, Sorghum, Tobacco, Tuberous & Corm Vegetables, Turf, Wheat FY2000 Decision Candidate
Zeta-cypermethrin Alfalfa, Brassica, Field Corn, Green Onion Leafy Vegetables, Rice, Sugar Beets, Sugarcane, Sweet Corn FY2000 Decision Candidate

For more information:

  • Information on registration activities, including the FY2000 workplan, is available on EPA’s web page http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/chemreg.htm.
  • Contact the National Pesticide Telecommunications Network (800-858-7378; www.ace.orst.edu/info/nptn) Exit EPA disclaimer for information on the toxicity of pesticides.
  • EPA’s pesticide homepage www.epa.gov/pesticides has information about pesticide regulation as well as publications about pesticide issues for consumers.

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