ACTIVE INGREDIENT (A.I.): The chemical or substance component of a pesticide product intended to kill, repel, attract, mitigate, or control a pest, or that acts as a plant growth regulator, desiccant, or nitrogen stabilizer. The remainder of a formulated pesticide product consists of one or more inert ingredients (e.g., water, solvents, emulsifiers, surfactants, clay, and propellants), which are there for reasons other than pesticidal activity.
AGRICULTURAL USER SECTOR (OR MARKET): Pesticides applied by owner/operators and custom/commercial applicators to farms and facilities involved in the production of raw agricultural commodities, principally food, fiber, and tobacco; includes non-crop and post-harvest use as well as crop and field applications.
CERTIFIED APPLICATOR: A person who is authorized to apply restricted-use pesticides as a result of meeting requirements for certification under FIFRA-mandated programs. Applicator certification programs are conducted by states, territories, and tribes in accordance with national standards set by EPA. Restricted use pesticides may be used only by or under the direct supervision of specially trained and certified applicators.
COMMERCIAL APPLICATOR: A person applying pesticides as part of a business applying pesticides for hire, or a person applying pesticides as part of his or her job with another (not for hire) type of business, organization, or agency. Commercial applicators often are certified, but need to be so only if they use restricted-use pesticides.
CROPLIFE AMERICA: Formerly the American Crop Protection Association (ACPA), which publishes annual pesticide industry profile (ACPA Industry Profile). The profile is a survey of pesticide sales provided by participating ACPA members.
CONVENTIONAL PESTICIDES: Pesticides that are chemicals or other substances developed and produced primarily or only for use as pesticides. An example is DDT, which was developed and used almost exclusively as a pesticide. Also includes biological and biochemical pesticides, e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis.
ECONOMIC USER SECTORS (OR MARKETS): In this report, estimates of quantities used and user expenditures for pesticides are broken out separately for the three general economic user sectors (or markets) as follows: agriculture, industrial/commercial/governmental, and home & garden. These three sectors/markets are defined elsewhere in this glossary.
FDA: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is involved in regulation of pesticides in the U.S., particularly enforcement of tolerances in food and feed products.
FFDCA: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the law that controls pesticide residues in food and feed.
FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, the law that generally controls pesticide sale and use.
FQPA: The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 amended the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).
HOME AND GARDEN USER SECTOR (OR MARKET): Involves pesticides applied by homeowners to homes and gardens, including lawns and single- and multiple-unit housing. Does not include pesticides for home & garden applications by professional applicators.
INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL/GOVERNMENTAL USER SECTOR (OR MARKET): Involves pesticides applied by professional applicators (by owner/operators/employees and custom/commercial applicators) to industrial, commercial, and governmental facilities, buildings, sites, and land; plus custom/commercial applications to homes and gardens, including lawns. May also be referred to as professional market for pesticides.
NON-AGRICULTURAL SECTORS: General term referring to a combination of home & garden and industrial/commercial/governmental sectors.
OTHER PESTICIDES: Chemicals registered as pesticides but that are produced and marketed mostly for other purposes, i.e., multi-use chemicals. Notable examples are sulfur, petroleum products (e.g., kerosene, oils, and distillates), salt, and sulfuric acid.
PESTICIDE: May be used to refer to an active ingredient (as defined above) or formulated pesticide product registered under FIFRA.
PESTICIDE USER EXPENDITURES: Dollar value of purchases by persons or businesses applying pesticides, such as farmers, commercial pesticide applicators, and homeowners. Reported numbers are nominal values for the years indicated (i.e., not adjusted or indexed for inflation).
PESTICIDE USAGE: Refers to actual applications of pesticides, generally in terms of quantity applied or units treated.
PRIVATE APPLICATOR: A category of applicator certification for farmers and/or employees, such that they can legally apply restricted-use pesticides or supervise others doing so who are not certified.
PROFESSIONAL MARKET: Sales of pesticides for application to industrial/commercial/governmental sectors, and to homes and gardens, by certified/commercial applicators.
PROPRIETARY DATA: Pesticide industry market research data that EPA purchases from private data research companies. These data are for EPA use only and cannot be divulged without vendor consent. Companies include Doane Marketing Research, Inc.; Kline and Company, Inc.; SRI, Inc.; Wood Mackenzie; and Mike Bukley, Inc.
SAFER PESTICIDES: Pesticides designated as safer (or reduced risk) by EPA exhibit favorable characteristics affecting health or environmental risks, resistance management, and integrated pest management. Reduced-risk pesticides may be conventional pesticides posing less risk, or biopesticides with unique modes of action, low use volume, lower toxicity, target species specificity, or natural occurrence.
SPECIALTY BIOCIDES: This report provides estimates for end uses as follows: swimming pools, spas, and industrial water treatment (excluding chlorine/hypochlorites, which are reported separately); disinfectants and sanitizers (including industrial/institutional applications and household cleaning products); and other specialty biocides (including biocides for adhesives and sealants, leather, synthetic latex polymers, metal-working fluids, paints and coatings, petroleum products, plastics, and textiles). These categories of end use are covered by FIFRA. Other end uses of specialty biocides (e.g., hospital/medical antiseptics, food/feed preservatives, cosmetics/toiletries) are regulated by the FDA under FFDCA and are not covered in this report.
TOLERANCE: The maximum amount of a pesticide allowable in a food or feed product before it is considered adulterated, usually specified in parts per million.
USDA/FATUS: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Trade of U.S. Publicly available data on U.S. agricultural imports and exports (http://www.ers.usda.gov/db/fatus).
USDA NASS: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. Publicly available data on U.S. agricultural pesticide use (http://www.usda.gov/nass).
WOOD PRESERVATIVES: Pesticide active ingredients used in treatment of wood to protect it from insects, fungi, and other pests. This report presents total use of wood preservative chemicals in industrial plants, the bulk of which is for pressure treatment. The major categories of pesticide chemicals included in this report as industrial wood preservatives are water-borne preservatives (mainly chromated copper arsenic), oil-borne preservatives (e.g., copper naphthenate and pentachlorophenol), creosote, creosote-coal tar, and creosote petroleum.