ACTIVE INGREDIENT (a.i.): The chemical or substance component of a pesticide product intended to kill, repel, attract, mitigate, or control a pest, or that acts as a plant growth regulator, desiccant, or nitrogen stabilizer. The remainder of a formulated pesticide product consists of one or more inert ingredients (e.g., water, solvents, emulsifiers, surfactants, clay, and propellants), which are there for reasons other than pesticidal activity.
AGRICULTURAL SECTOR (OR MARKET): Pesticides applied by owner/operators and custom/commercial applicators to farms and facilities involved in the production of raw agricultural commodities, principally food, fiber, and tobacco; includes non-crop and post-harvest use as well as crop and field applications.
CERTIFIED APPLICATOR: A person who is authorized to apply “restricted-use” pesticides as a result of meeting requirements for certification under FIFRA-mandated programs. Applicator certification programs are conducted by states, territories, and tribes in accordance with national standards set by EPA. “Restricted-use pesticides” may be used only by or under the direct supervision of specially trained and certified applicators.
COMMERCIAL APPLICATOR: A person applying pesticides as part of a business, applying pesticides for hire, or applying pesticides as part of his or her job with another (not for hire) type of business, organization, or agency. Commercial applicators often are certified, but need to be so only if they apply restricted-use pesticides.
CONVENTIONAL PESTICIDES: Pesticides that are chemicals or other substances developed and produced primarily or only for use as pesticides. An example is 2,4-D, which was developed and used almost exclusively as a pesticide. Conventional pesticides also include biological and biochemical pesticides, e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis.
ECONOMIC USER SECTORS (OR MARKETS): In this report, estimates of quantities used and user expenditures for pesticides are broken out separately for the three general economic user sectors (or markets) as follows: agriculture, industrial/commercial/governmental, and home and garden. These three sectors/markets are defined elsewhere in this glossary.
FDA: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is involved in regulation of pesticides in the United States, particularly in the enforcement of tolerances in food and feed products.
FFDCA: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the law that controls pesticide residues in food and feed.
FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, the law that generally controls pesticide sale and use.
FQPA: The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 amended the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).
HOME AND GARDEN USER SECTOR (OR MARKET): Involves pesticides applied by homeowners to homes and gardens, including lawns and single- and multiple-unit housing. Does not include pesticides for home and garden applications by professional applicators.
INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL/GOVERNMENTAL USER SECTOR (OR MARKET): Involves pesticides applied by professional applicators (by owners/operators/employees and custom/commercial applicators) to industrial, commercial, and governmental facilities, buildings, sites, and land, plus custom/commercial applications to homes and gardens, including lawns. May also be referred to as the “professional market” for pesticides.
NON-AGRICULTURAL SECTORS: General term referring to a combination of the home and garden and industrial/ commercial/governmental sectors.
OTHER PESTICIDES: Chemicals registered as pesticides but that are produced and marketed mostly for other purposes (i.e., multi-use chemicals). Notable examples are sulfur, petroleum products (e.g., kerosene, oils, and distillates), salt, and sulfuric acid.
PESTICIDE: May be used to refer to an active ingredient (as defined above) or formulated pesticide product registered under FIFRA.
PESTICIDE USAGE: Refers to actual applications of pesticides, generally in terms of quantity applied or units treated.
PRIVATE APPLICATOR: A category of applicator certification for farmers and/or employees, such that they can legally apply restricted-use pesticides or supervise others doing so who are not certified.
PRODUCER LEVEL: Data covering companies that manufacture and formulate pesticides.
PROFESSIONAL MARKET: Sales of pesticides for application to industrial/commercial/governmental sector and to homes and gardens, by certified/commercial applicators.
PROPRIETARY DATA: Pesticide industry marketing research data that EPA purchases from private data research companies. These data are for EPA use only and cannot be divulged without vendor consent. Companies include GfK Kynetec, and Kline & Company, Inc.
SPECIALTY BIOCIDES: This report provides estimates for end uses as follows: swimming pools, spas, and industrial water treatment (excluding chlorine/hypochlorites, which are reported separately); disinfectants and sanitizers (including industrial/institutional applications and household cleaning products); and other specialty biocides (including biocides for adhesives and sealants, leather, synthetic latex polymers, metalworking fluids, paints and coatings, petroleum products, plastics, mineral slurries, and textiles). These categories of end use are covered by FIFRA. Other end uses of specialty biocides (e.g., hospital/medical antiseptics, food/feed preservatives, cosmetics/toiletries) are regulated by the FDA under FFDCA and are not covered in this report.
TOLERANCE: The maximum amount of a pesticide allowable in a food or feed product before it is considered adulterated, usually specified in parts per million.
USDA/FAS: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service. Publicly available data on U.S. agricultural imports and exports (www.fas.usda.gov).
USDA NASS: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. Publicly available data on U.S. agricultural pesticide use (www.nass.usda.gov).
USER LEVEL: Data covering persons or businesses that purchase and apply pesticides, such as farmers, commercial pesticide applicators, and homeowners.
WOOD PRESERVATIVES: Pesticide active ingredients used in treatment of wood to protect it from insects, fungi, and other pests. This report presents total use of wood preservative chemicals in industrial plants, the bulk of which is for pressure treatment. The major categories of pesticide chemicals included in this report as wood preservatives are waterborne preservatives (mainly chromated copper arsenic), oilborne preservatives (e.g., copper naphthenate and pentachlorophenol), creosote, creosote-coal tar, and creosote petroleum.