FLORIDA CUCUMBER (Vegetables)
The field used to represent cucumber (vegetable) production in Florida is located in Collier and Hendry Counties in Southwest Florida, although vegetable production areas include other regions of Florida such as the Everglades Agricultural Area, west-central and south-eastern regions. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, Florida is a major producer of truck crops and is the highest producer of cucumbers. Cucumbers and other truck crops are generally grown on "muck soils," but cucumbers do as well on sandy soils which require less cleaning before marketing. All cucumbers are planted by direct seeding in Florida. Typical planting distances for slicing cucumbers are 48 to 60 inches between rows and 6 to 12 inches between plants. Pickling cucumbers are typically planted at 36 to 48 inches between rows and 2 to 4 inches between plants. When grown using plastic mulch, slicing cucumbers are planted in one or two rows per bed, with 10 to 18 inches between the rows on the bed, 48 to 72 inches between beds, and 8 to 12 inches between holes with one or two plants per hole. Pickling cucumbers are planted at a distance of 3 to 4 inches between plants. At the closest spacing, the plant population is 21,780 per acre. Seeds are planted at a depth of 0.5 to 0.75 inches. Between 35 and 65 days are required from seeding to maturity (first pick). Cucumbers in Florida are produced using several types of irrigation systems. In mulched production, drip, overhead, and seepage irrigation are used. By raising the water table, seepage irrigation restricts root growth to the bed area. Water is maintained approximately 15 to 18 inches below the soil surface, allowing seepage into the root zone. The soil selected to simulate the field is a Riviera sand. Riviera sand is a loamy, siliceous, active, hyperthermic Arenic Glossaqualfs. These soils are often used for truck crop and citrus production. Riviera sand is a deep, poorly drained, slow runoff, slowly to very slowly permeable soil that formed in stratified marine sandy and loamy sediments on the Lower Coastal Plain. These soil are generally found on broad, low flats and in depressions and have slopes generally less than 2 percent. The soil is of moderate extent. Riviera sand is a Hydrologic Group C soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1948||Meteorological File - West Palm Beach, Fl (W12844)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File - West Palm Beach, Fl (W12844)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.78||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.0 cm C- 1||No appreciable snow accumulation occurs in this part of Florida|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||33.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.03 tons EI-1*||PRZM Input Collator (Burns, 1992) and FARM Manual (EPA, 1985)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||0.2||Haan and Barfield, 1979|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||1.0||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||4||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Slope (SLP)||1%||Mid-point of soil series range (EPA, 2001)|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||1||Field are fallow prior to planting|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||36||Set to weather data. Meteorological File - West Palm Beach, FL (W12844)|
|Maximum rainfall Interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.15||PIC; confirmed using Table 5.4 from PRZM Manual (Burns, 1992 and EPA, 1985)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||50 cm||Florida Cucumber Crop Profile, USDA|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||80||PIC (Burns, 1992)|
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||3||Plant residues are left behind until later in the year when tilled for next series of crops; rarely cucumbers.|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|10/10||Florida Cucumber Crop Profile, USDA http://pestdata.ncsu.edu/cropprofiles/cropprofiles.cfm|
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|05/12||Florida Cucumber Crop Profile, USDA http://pestdata.ncsu.edu/cropprofiles/cropprofiles.cfm|
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|10/12||Florida Cucumber Crop Profile, USDA http://pestdata.ncsu.edu/cropprofiles/cropprofiles.cfm|
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||91, 87, 88||Gleams Manual Table A.3, Fallow = SR poor, Cropping and Residue = Row Crop SR/poor (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.011||RUSLE Project; UC0BGBGC; Green Beans, conventional tillage; Tampa, FL (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.162 - 0.938||RUSLE Project; UC0BGBGC; Green Beans, conventional tillage; Tampa, FL, Variable with date (USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||100 cm||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||3 (Top horizon split in two)|
|First, Second, and Third Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)
Ed Russell (USDA-NRCS, Fresno)
|Bulk Density (BD)||
|Initial Water Content (THETO)||
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)|
|Field Capacity (THEFC)||
|Wilting Point (THEWP)||
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)||
Burns. 1992. Burns, L.A., (Coordinator), B.W. Allen, Jr., M.C. Barber, S.L. Bird, J.M. Cheplick, M.J. Fendley, D.R. Hartel, C.A. Kittner, F.L. Mayer, Jr., L.A. Suarez, and S.E. Wooten. Pesticide and Industrial Chemical Risk Analysis and Hazard Assessment, Version 3.0. (PIRANHA) Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA. 1992.
EPA. 1985. Field Agricultural Runoff Monitoring (FARM) Manual, (EPA/600/3-85/043) Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Haan, C.T. and B.J. Barfield. 1978. Hydrology and Sedimentology of Surface Mined Lands. Office of Continuing Education and Extension, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506. pp. 286.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).