FLORIDA SWEET CORN
The field used to represent sweet corn production in Florida is located in Palm Beach County in Southeast Florida, although sweet corn production occurs throughout Florida. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, Florida is the major producer of fresh market sweet corn in the U.S. Sweet corn is extensively grown on "muck soils" (approximately 75%). Typical planting distances are 30 inches between rows and 6 to 8 inches between plants. Sweet corn in Florida is produced using several types of irrigation systems. The soil selected to simulate the field is a Riviera sand. Riviera sand is a loamy, siliceous, active, hyperthermic Arenic Glossaqualfs. These soils are often used for truck crop (including sweet corn) and citrus production. Riviera sand is a deep, poorly drained, slow runoff, slowly to very slowly permeable soil that formed in stratified marine sandy and loamy sediments on the Lower Coastal Plain. These soil are generally found on broad, low flats and in depressions and have slopes generally less than 2 percent. The soil is of moderate extent. Riviera sand is a Hydrologic Group C soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1948||Meteorological File - West Palm Beach, FL (W12844)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File - West Palm Beach, FL (W12844)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.78||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.0 cm C- 1||No appreciable snow accumulation occurs in this part of Florida|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||33.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.03 tons EI-1*||PRZM Input Collator (Burns, 1992) and FARM Manual (EPA, 1985)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||0.2||Haan and Barfield, 1979|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||1.0||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||4||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Slope (SLP)||1%||Mid-point of soil series range (EPA, 2001)|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||1||Field are fallow prior to planting|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||36||Set to weather data. Meteorological File - West Palm Beach, FL (W12844)|
|Maximum rainfall interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.15||PIC; confirmed using Table 5.4 from PRZM Manual (Burns, 1992 and EPA, 1985)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||100 cm||Set to profile depth. Roots can exceed 150 cm.|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||90||PIC (Burns, 1992)|
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||3||Plant residues are left behind until later in the year when tilled for next series of crops; rarely cucumbers.|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|15/10||http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/opmppiap/subcrp.htm southern sweet corn cultivation cycle is generally between January and June; Maturation 64-90 days from seeding to harvest; Harvest occurs over a period of weeks to several months. Values set to cover rainy season Oct - Feb.|
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||91, 87, 88||Gleams Manual Table A.3, Fallow = SR/poor; Cropping and Residue = Row Crop, SR/poor condition (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.011||RUSLE Project; UC0BGBGC; Green Beans, conventional tillage; Tampa, FL (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.162 - 0.938||RUSLE Project; Variable with date, UC0BGBGC; Green Beans, conventional tillage; Tampa, FL (USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||100 cm||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||3 (Top horizon split in two)|
|First, Second, and Third Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)
Ed Russell (USDA-NRCS, Fresno)
|Bulk Density (BD)||
|Initial Water Content (THETO)||
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)||
|Field Capacity (THEFC)||
|Wilting Point (THEWP)||
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)||
Burns. 1992. Burns, L.A., (Coordinator), B.W. Allen, Jr., M.C. Barber, S.L. Bird, J.M. Cheplick, M.J. Fendley, D.R. Hartel, C.A. Kittner, F.L. Mayer, Jr., L.A. Suarez, and S.E. Wooten. Pesticide and Industrial Chemical Risk Analysis and Hazard Assessment, Version 3.0. (PIRANHA) Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA. 1992.
EPA. 1985. Field Agricultural Runoff Monitoring (FARM) Manual, (EPA/600/3-85/043) Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Haan, C.T. and B.J. Barfield. 1978. Hydrology and Sedimentology of Surface Mined Lands. Office of Continuing Education and Extension, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506. pp. 286.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).