NORTH CAROLINA CORN (Western)
The field used to represent corn production in Western North Carolina is located in Henderson County. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, North Carolina is ranked 9th among major corn producing states in the U.S. Corn is planted throughout the state with the largest production located in the coastal plain and tidewater regions. Sweet corn is produced mainly on the coastal plain (MLRA 153 A and B). The crop is generally planted in the early Spring (April) and harvested beginning in August. Continuous corn is practice is much of the region, especially in the Piedmont. However, rotation with other crops such as soybean is the principal practiced on the coastal plain. Most of the corn is planted for feed grain. Planting depth and row spacing (generally 30 inches) follows general practices for the U.S. Conventional tillage dominates management practices, followed by no-tillage. However, conservation tillage is continuing to grow. The crop is rarely grown under irrigation, except for sweet corn. The soil selected to simulate the field is a Chewacla loam. Chewacla loam is a fine- loamy, mixed, active, thermic Fluvaquentic Dystrudepts. Most of the series is cleared for pasture or planted in row crops, mostly corn with the remainder in small grain and hay. Chewacla loam is a very deep, somewhat poorly drained, slow runoff, moderately permeable soil formed in recent alluvium washed largely from soils formed in residuum from metamorphic and igneous rocks. They are located on flood plains. Slopes are generally between 0 to 2 percent. The soils are extensive throughout the region. Chewacla loam is a Hydrologic Group C soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1948||Meteorological File - Bristol, TN (W13877)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File - Bristol, TN (W13877)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.76||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.2 cm C- 1||PRZM Manual Table 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||17.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.29 tons EI-1*||FARM Manual, Table 3.1 (EPA, 1985)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||0.19||Haan and Barfield, 1978.|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||1.00||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||3||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||1||Set to conditions prior to crop planting|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||36||Set to weather data. Meteorological File - Bristol, TN (W13877)|
|Maximum rainfall interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.3||PRZM Table 5.4 (EPA, 1998)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||90 cm||PRZM Input Collator; (Burns, 1992); PRZM Table 5.9 (EPA, 1998)|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||100||PRZM Input Collator (Burns, 1992); Set to default for most row crops. (EPA, 2001)|
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||3||PRZM Input Collator, PIC (Burns, 1992)|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|26/04||Usual Planting and Harvest Dates for US Field Crops (USDA, 1984)|
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||89, 86, 87||Gleams Manual Table A.3,Fallow SR/CT/poor, Cropping and Residue = Row Crop SR/CT/poor (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.014||RUSLE Project, NB0CGHLC, Corn, Grain, conventional tillage, Asheville, NC (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.100 - 0.462||RUSLE Project; NB0CGHLC, Corn, Grain, conventional tillage, Asheville, NC (USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||100 cm||PIC (Burns, 1992) Confirmed with: NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||4 (Top horizon split in two)|
|First, Second, Third, and Fourth Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3,4)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||PIC (Burns, 1992) Confirmed with: NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001) http://soils.usda.gov/survey/nscd/|
|Bulk Density (BD)||
|Initial Water Content (THETO)||
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)||
|Field Capacity (THEFC)||
|Wilting Point (THEWP)||
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)|
Burns. 1992. Burns, L.A., (Coordinator), B.W. Allen, Jr., M.C. Barber, S.L. Bird, J.M. Cheplick, M.J. Fendley, D.R. Hartel, C.A. Kittner, F.L. Mayer, Jr., L.A. Suarez, and S.E. Wooten. Pesticide and Industrial Chemical Risk Analysis and Hazard Assessment, Version 3.0. (PIRANHA) Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA. 1992.
EPA. 1985. Field Agricultural Runoff Monitoring (FARM) Manual, (EPA/600/3-85/043) Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Haan, C.T. and B.J. Barfield. 1978. Hydrology and Sedimentology of Surface Mined Lands. Office of Continuing Education and Extension, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506. pp. 286.
USDA. 1984. Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops, Statistical Reporting Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook #628, pp.78.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).