NORTH CAROLINA PEANUTS
The field used to represent peanut production in North Carolina is located in East Pitt County in the Coastal Plain. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, North Carolina is ranked 3rd among the major peanut producing states in the U.S., accounting for approximately 10 percent of the total U.S. crop. Peanuts are produced mainly on the northeastern coastal plain and a small amount is produced in the southeastern region. The crop is generally planted in the Spring (mid-April to early May) and harvested beginning in September. Crop rotation is the most important cultural practice, with a long rotation (3 years) followed by two years of a grass-type crop being among the most effective management practices for nematode, diseases, and weed control. Most plantings occurs on raised beds. Row spacing is generally 30 to 48 inches. Conventional tillage is practiced in the region, but strip-tillage and no-tillage practices are becoming more popular. The crop is rarely grown under irrigation, approximately 10 percent. The soil selected to simulate the field is a Craven silt loam. Craven silt loam is a fine, mixed, subactive, thermic Aquic Hapludults. Approximately one-half of the series is used for the production of row crops such as corn, tobacco, cotton, small grain, peanuts and pasture. Craven silt loam is a deep, moderately well drained, medium to rapid runoff, slowly permeable soils formed in clayey Pleistocene sediments. They are located on nearly level to sloping Coastal Plain Uplands. Slopes are generally between 0 to 12 percent. The soils are extensive throughout the Coastal Plain region. Craven silt loam is a Hydrologic Group C soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1948||Meteorological File - Norfolk, VA (W13737)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File -Norfolk, VA (W13737)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.75||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.15 cm C- 1||PRZM Manual Table 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||17.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.24 tons EI-1*||FARM Manual, Table 3.1 (EPA, 1985)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||1.34||Haan and Barfield, 1978.|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||1.00||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||4||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Slope (SLP)||6%||Mid-point of series range. Selected according to QA/QC Guidance (EPA, 2001)|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||3||American Peanut Council http://peanutsusa.com/what/growing.html|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||36||Set to weather data. Meteorological File - Norfolk, VA (W13737)|
|Maximum rainfall interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.1||PRZM Table 5.4 (EPA, 1998)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||45 cm||PRZM Input Collator; (Burns, 1992); PRZM Table 5.9 (EPA, 1998)|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||80||PRZM Input Collator, PIC (Burns, 1992)|
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||3||American Peanut Council http://peanutsusa.com/what/growing.html - assuming plants used for hay (can also be left in field)|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|11/04||Usual Planting and Harvest Dates for US Field Crops (USDA, 1984)|
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||89, 84, 86||Gleams Manual Table; close seeded legume, C soil, fallow = fallow SR/CT poor; cropping and residue = legumes SR poor condition (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.014||RUSLE Project, PB9PRPRC- runner peanuts, Augusta GA (nearest peanut) (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.047 - 0.668||RUSLE Project; PB9PRPRC- runner peanuts, Augusta GA (nearest peanut)(USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||100 cm||PIC (Burns, 1992) Confirmed with: NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||3 (Top horizon split in two)|
|First, Second, and Third Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||PIC (Burns, 1992) Confirmed with: NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001) http://soils.usda.gov/survey/nscd/|
|Bulk Density (BD)||
|Initial Water Content (THETO)||
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)||
|Field Capacity (THEFC)||
|Wilting Point (THEWP)||
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)|
Burns. 1992. Burns, L.A., (Coordinator), B.W. Allen, Jr., M.C. Barber, S.L. Bird, J.M. Cheplick, M.J. Fendley, D.R. Hartel, C.A. Kittner, F.L. Mayer, Jr., L.A. Suarez, and S.E. Wooten. Pesticide and Industrial Chemical Risk Analysis and Hazard Assessment, Version 3.0. (PIRANHA) Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA. 1992.
EPA. 1985. Field Agricultural Runoff Monitoring (FARM) Manual, (EPA/600/3-85/043) Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Haan, C.T. and B.J. Barfield. 1978. Hydrology and Sedimentology of Surface Mined Lands. Office of Continuing Education and Extension, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506. pp. 286.
USDA. 1984. Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops, Statistical Reporting Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook #628, pp.78.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).