When EPA assesses the risk of a pesticide to human health or the environment, it considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed. In assessing exposure, scientists frequently use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in food, water, residential, and occupational environments.
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OPP uses aquatic models to estimate pesticide concentrations in food, water, non-target organisms, residential and occupational environments. These estimated concentrations are used to assess exposure to aquatic organisms, humans, and the environment.
- GENEEC (GENeric Estimated Environmental Concentration)
- FIRST (FQPA Index Reservoir Screening Tool)
- PRZM (Pesticide Root Zone Model)
- PRZM-GW (Pesticide Root Zone Model for GroundWater)
- EXAMS (Exposure Analysis Modeling System)
- EXPRESS (EXAMS - PRZM Exposure Simulation Shell)
- SCIGROW (Screening Concentration In GROund Water)
- SWIMODEL (Swimmer Exposure Assessment Model)
- Tier I Rice Model
GENEEC is a surface water model that is used to assess exposure of pesticides to aquatic organisms and the environment.
FIRST is a surface water model that is used to assess exposure to pesticides in drinking water.
KABAM is used to estimate potential bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic pesticides in freshwater aquatic food webs and subsequent risks to mammals and birds via consumption of contaminated aquatic prey.
PRZM is a surface water model that simulates chemical movement in soil within and immediately below the plant root zone. PRZM is often linked with EXAMS to develop refined exposure assessments of pesticide concentrations in aquatic environments.
EXAMS is a surface water model that evaluates the fate, transport, and exposure concentration of pesticides. EXAMS is frequently linked with PRZM to develop refined exposure assessments of pesticide concentrations in aquatic environments.
EXPRESS is designed to facilitate a rapid and consistent assessment of aquatic pesticide exposure on a variety of crops. EXPRESS is a joint project of the USEPA Office of Pesticide Programs' Environmental Fate and Effects Division (OPP/EFED) and the USEPA Office of Research and Development (ORD).
SWAMP is a probabilistic model that estimates the probability, magnitude, and certainty of the risk to aquatic organisms from exposure to pesticides.
SCIGROW is an aquatic model used to estimate pesticide concentrations in ground water.
SWIMODEL is a screenting tool for conducting exposure assessment of pesticides found in indoor swimming pools and spas.
Tier I Rice Model is an aquatic model used to estimate surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies.
OPP uses terrestrial models to estimate pesticide concentrations on avian and mammalian food items and exposure and risk to terrestrial organisms from pesticide use.
- SIP (Screening Imbibition Program)
- STIR (Screening Tool for Inhalation Risk)
- T-REX (Terrestrial Residue Exposure)
- TIM (Terrestrial Investigation Model)
SIP is used by OPP to provide an upper bound estimate of exposure of birds and mammals to pesticides through drinking water alone.
STIR is used by OPP to estimate inhalation-type exposure based on pesticide-specific information.
T-REX is used by OPP to estimate pesticide concentration on avian and mammalian food items.
TIM is a probabilistic model that estimates the probability, magnitude, and certainty of risk to terrestrial organisms from exposure to pesticides.
TerrPlant is a Tier 1 model providing screening-level estimates of exposure to terrestrial plants from single pesticide applications.
T-HERPS is a simulation model that estimates exposure to terrestrial reptiles and amphibians from pesticide use.
OPP uses atmospheric models to predict the deposition patterns of pesticides released into the atmosphere.
- PERFUM (Probabilistic Exposure and Risk Model for FUMigants)
- SOFEA (SOil Fumigant Exposure Assessment)
- FEMS (Fumigant Exposure Modeling System)
AgDRIFT® is an atmospheric model that predicts spray deposition patterns from aerial pesticide applications.
AgDISP is used by OPP to predict the motion of spray material released from aircraft.
PERFUM is used to calculate distributional exposure to soil fumigants emitted from treated agricultural fields.
SOFEA system is used to calculate exposure to bystanders who are in proximity to fileds treated with soil fumigants.
FEMS is used to calculate exposure to bystanders who are in proximity to fields treated with soil fumigants.
Health Effects Models
OPP uses health effects models to predict effects to humans from exposure to pesticides.
- DEEM (Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model)
- CARES (Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System)
- LifeLineTM Version 2.0
- LifeLineTM Version 4.3
- OPHED (Occupational Pesticide Handler Exposure Data)
- OPPED (Occupational Pesticide Post-application Exposure Data)
- REx (Residential Exposure Assessment)
- SHEDS (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model)
- PBPK/PD (Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic)
- Residential SOPs
DEEM provides dietary probabilistic assessments of dietary pesticide exposure.
CALENDEXTM - FCID evaluates aggregated exposure that appropriately incorporates the probability of simultaneous exposures across multiple pathways.
LifeLineTM Version 2.0 allows the user to investigate exposure to pesticide residues in diet, tap water, and in residential environments.
LifeLine Version 4.3 is used to assess dietary, aggregate and cululative risks of pesticides. Version 4.3 is 50% faster than the prior version of LifeLine and includes new features in virtually every portion of the model.
Describes data sources used in exposure and risk assessment of occupational pesticide handlers (i.e., mixer/loaders and applicators). Includes the "Occupational Pesticide Handler Unit Exposure Surrogate Reference Table".
Describes data sources used in assessment of occupational post-application exposures (e.g., harvesting, weeding, etc.). Includes "Science Advisory Council for Exposure, Policy 3".
SHEDS is a physically-based stochastic model developed to quantify exposure and dose of humans to multimedia, multipathway pollutants.
The Standard Operating Procedures for Residential Pesticide Exposure Assessment (Residential SOPs) are instructions for estimating exposure resulting from the most common residential pesticide uses including lawn and garden care, foggers, and pet treatments.