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Cleanup Technology & Tools
EPA and MultiAgency Cleanup Tools:  

Publications, Technical Documents, and Guidance

Cleanup

EPA has developed both guidance and technical documents for use in setting cleanup levels for radioactively contaminated sites.

On this page:


Most publications are available online and/or may be ordered in hard copy.

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General Information

Common Radionuclides Commonly Found at Contaminated Sites
Fact sheets about radionuclides that are most frequently encountered at designated Superfund sites.

Technical Support Document

Technical Support Document for the Development of Radionuclide Cleanup Levels for Soil [EPA 402-R-96-011A]
Describes parts of the technical analysis being undertaken in support of standards that ensure certain sites are cleaned up to a level that is protective of human health and the environment before they are released for public use.

Guidance

Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides
This guidance presents a framework for developing soil screening levels (SSLs) for radionuclides, focusing primarily on a simple methodology for developing site-specific screening levels, but also including generic soil screening levels and detailed models for more complete site conditions.

Directives 9200.4-18 and 9200.4-23 (PDF) (22 pp, 82 K) August 22, 1997
These directives establish cleanup levels for CERCLA sites with radioactive contamination.

Remediation Goals for Radioactively Contaminated CERCLA Sites Using the Benchmark Cleanup Dose Cleanup Criteria in 10 CFR Part 40, Appendix A I Criterion 6(6)(PDF) (9 pp, 982 K)
[OSWER Directive 9200.4-35P, NTIS Order Number PB2001-963301] April 11, 2000
This memo addresses the use of soil and structure cleanup criteria in 10 CFR (40) Appendix A, I Criterion 6(6)when setting cleanup goals at CERCLA sites with radioactive contamination.

Use of Uranium Drinking Water Standards Under 40 CFR 141 and 192 as as Remediation Goals for Ground Water at CERCLA Sites (PDF) (11 pp, 420 K) [ OSWER Directive 9283.1-14, NTIS Order Number PB2001-963302] November 6, 2001.
This memorandum addresses the use of uranium standards in 40 CFR Part 141 (MCLs) and 40 CFR Part 192 (UMTRCA) when setting remediation goals for ground waters that are current or potential sources of drinking water at CERCLA sites.

Directive 9200.4-25 (PDF) (7 p, 282 K) February 22, 1998
This directive presents circumstances under which the soil cleanup criteria in 40 CFR Part 192 should be considered an ARAR in developing a response action under CERCLA.

Environmental Characteristics of EPA, NRC, and DOE Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances [EPA 402-R-93-011] March, 1993
This report describes the range of site characteristics at sites contaminated with radioactive materials.
Companion Fact Sheet: Environmental Characteristics of EPA, NRC, and DOE Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances [EPA 540-F-94-023] January, 1996
This fact sheet describes the range of characteristics at sites contaminated with radioactive materials

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Use and Selection of Models

Documenting Ground Water Modeling at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances [EPA 540-R-96-003] January, 1996
This report describes a recommended method of documenting ground-water modeling results for hazardous waste remediation sites.

Companion Fact Sheet: Documenting Ground-Water Modeling at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances [EPA 540-F-96-002] January, 1996
This fact sheet describes the recommended method of documenting ground-water modeling results for hazardous waste remediation sites

Computer Models Used to Support Cleanup Decision-Making at Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Sites [EPA 402-R-92-005] March 1993
This report includes an introduction, description of a survey and model classification scheme, survey results, conclusions, and references.

Companion Fact Sheet: Computer Models Used to Support Cleanup Decision Making at Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Sites [EPA 540-F-94-022] January, 1996
This fact sheet includes an introduction, description of a survey and model classification scheme, survey results, conclusions, and references.

Environmental Pathway Models - Ground Water Modeling [EPA 402-R-93-009] March, 1993
This report identifies the role of, and need for, modeling in support of remedial decision making at site contaminated with radioactive materials.

Companion Fact Sheet: Environmental Pathway Models - Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material [EPA 540-F-94-024] January, 1996
This fact sheet identifies the role of, and need for, modeling in support of remedial decision making at sites contaminated with radioactive materials.

Estimation of Infiltration Rate in the Vadose Zone:
Volume I:Compilation of Simple Mathematical Models [EPA 600-R-97-128A] February, 1998
This volume provides and extensive compilation and categorization of infiltration estimation methods.
Volume II: Application of Selected Mathematical Models [ EPA 600-R-97-128B] February, 1998
This volume selects six methods that are useful under various conceptualizations. It includes electronic versions of the methods for actual application.

Three Multimedia Models Used at Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Sites [EPA 540-R-96-004] 01/96
This document provides an approach for evaluating and critically reviewing multimedia models.

Understanding Variation in Partition Coefficient, Kd, Values (Volume I, II, III) [EPA 402-R-99-004A, B, and C] August, 1999, March 2004
This three-volume report describes the conceptualization, measurement, and use of the partition (or distribution) coefficient, Kd, parameter. It also describes the geochemical aqueous solution and sorbent properties that are most important in controlling adsorption/retardation behavior of selected contaminants.

Environmental Characteristics of EPA, NRC, and DOE Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances [EPA 402-R-93-011] March, 1993
This report describes the range of site characteristics at sites contaminated with radioactive materials.
Companion Fact Sheet: Environmental Characteristics of EPA, NRC, and DOE Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances [EPA 540-F-94-023] January, 1996
This fact sheet describes the range of characteristics at sites contaminated with radioactive materials

A Technical Guide to Ground Water Model Selection at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances [EPA 402-R-94-012] June, 1994
This report describes methods for selecting ground-water flow and contaminant transport models.
Companion Fact Sheet: A Technical Guide to Ground-Water Model Selection at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances [EPA 540-F-94-025] January, 1996
Describes methods for selecting ground-water flow and contaminant transport models

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Treatment Evaluation and Treatability Studies

Understanding Variation in Partition Coefficient, Kd, Values (Volume I, II, III) [EPA 402-R-99-004A, B, and C] August, 1999, March 2004
This three-volume report describes the conceptualization, measurement, and use of the partition (or distribution) coefficient, Kd, parameter. It also describes the geochemical aqueous solution and sorbent properties that are most important in controlling adsorption/retardation behavior of selected contaminants.

Resource Guide to Electrokinetics Laboratory and Field Processes Applicable to Radioactive and Hazardous Mixed Wastes in Soil and Groundwater from 1992 to 1997 [EPA 402-R-97-006] July, 1997.
Compiles a list of all electrokinetic processes used on a patented, bench, pilot, field or conceptual scale from the period 1992 to 1997. It is intended for use by scientists responsible for identifying and selecting a remediation tool for use at sites containing radioactive materials.

Technology Screening Guide for Radioactively Contaminated Sites [EPA 402-R-96-017] November, 1996
This document is designed to help identify and screen technologies for treating radioactively contaminated sites.

Technology Reference Guide for Radiologically Contaminated Surfaces [EPA 402-R-06-003] March, 2006
This is a compendium of mature technologies for decontaminating radiologically contaminated surfaces, including buildings and equipment.

Technology Reference Guide for Radioactively Contaminated Media [EPA 402-R-07-004], October 2007
The Technology Reference Guidance for Radioactively Contaminated Media (Guide) is intended to
aid in the selection of treatment technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated media.

Field Demonstration of Permeable Reactive Barriers to Remove Dissolved Uranium from Groundwater, Fry Canyon, Utah [EPA 402-C-00-001] September, 1997 -September, 1998, Interim Report)
Describes the Fry Canyon Permeable Reactive Barrier Demonstration Project

Depleted Uranium: Technical Brief [EPA 402-R-06-011], December 2006
describes the chemical and radiological properties of depleted uranium, its management, fate and transport, measurement and remediation tools, and site cleanup.

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Mixed-Waste

Profile and Management Options for EPA Laboratory Generated Mixed Waste [EPA 402-R-96-015] August, 1996
This report identifies and examines the mixed waste management options and technologies applicable to EPA laboratories. The results from a 3-year survey of EPA laboratory produced mixed and low-level wastes as relevant information from the technical literature, are presented in this report as well.

Stabilization/Solidification Processes for Mixed Waste [EPA 402-R-96-014] 06/96
This report contains information and data for four Stabilization/Solidification processes: Grout/Portland Cement Stabilization, Sulfur Polymer Encapsulation, Polymer Encapsulation, and Phoenix Ash Technology.

Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes: Waste Handling and Operational Issues [EPA 402-R-93-012] April, 1993
This document focuses on the technical and operational issues associated with incineration.

Radiation and Mixed Waste Incineration:Vol. 1 Technology [EPA 520/1-91-010-1]
Vol. 2 Risk of Radiation Exposure [EPA 520/1-91-010-2] May, 1991

Assessment of Technologies for the Remediation of Radioactively Contaminated Superfund Sites [EPA/540/2-90/001] January, 1990
This report is a screening evaluation of information needs for the development of generic treatability studies for the remediation of Superfund Radiation sites on the National Priorities List.

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