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Radon (Rn)

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Indoor Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurement Device Protocols

Note: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.

References

Please Note:

EPA closed its National Radon Proficiency Program (RPP) in 1998.  The information in this document which refers to companies, individuals or test devices that "meet EPA's requirements", or "EPA Certified...",  or refers to EPA's old RPP designations "RMP or RCP" is no longer applicable.  Please check our "How to ... page for more information on how to find a qualified radon service professional near you.

Altshuler, B. and Pasternack, B., 1963, "Statistical Measures of the Lower Limit of Detection of a Radioactivity Counter," Health Physics, Vol. 9, pp. 293-298.

American Association of Radon Scientists and Technologists (AARST), 1991a, "Guidelines for Radon/Radon Decay Product Testing in Real Estate Transactions of Residential Dwellings," AARST, Park Ridge, New Jersey.

American Association of Radon Scientists and Technologists (AARST), 1991b, "Draft Standard: Radon/Radon Decay Product Instrumentation Test and Calibration," AARST, Park Ridge, New Jersey.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 1973, "American National Standard for Radiation Protection in Uranium Mines," ANSI N13.8-1973.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 1989, "Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation–Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation," ANSI N42.17B-1989, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, New York.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 1991 Draft, "ASTM Guide: The New Standard Guide for Radon Measurements in Indoor Air," Subcommittee D22.05 on Indoor Air.

Beckman, R.T., 1975, "Calibration Procedures for Radon and Radon Daughter Measurement Equipment," U.S. Department of Interior, Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration Information Report 1005.

Busigin, A., Van Der Vooren, A., and Phillips, C., 1979, "Interpretation of the Response of Continuous Radon Monitors to Transient Radon Concentrations," Health Physics, Vol. 37, pp. 659-667.

Cohen, B.L. 1988, Personal Communication, August 1988.

Cohen, B.L. and Cohen, E.S., 1983, "Theory and Practice of Radon Monitoring with Charcoal Adsorption," Health Physics, Vol. 45, No. 2.

Damkjaer, A., 1986, "The Efficiency of Cellulose Nitrate LR115 II for Alpha Particle Detection," Nuclear Tracks, Vol. 12, Nos 1-6, pp. 295-298 [Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum., Part D].

Fleischer, R.L., Price, P.B., and Walker, R.M., 1965, "Solid State Track Detectors: Applications to Nuclear Science and Geophysics," Annual Review of Science, pg. 1.

George, A.C., 1976, "Scintillation Flasks for Determination of Low Level Concentrations of Radon," in Proceedings of Ninth Midyear Health Physics Symposium, Denver, Colorado.

George, A.C., 1980, "Radon and Radon Daughter Field Measurements," Paper presented at the National Bureau of Standards Seminar on Traceability for Ionizing Radiation Measurements," May 8-9, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

George, A.C., 1984, "Passive, Integrated Measurements of Indoor Radon Using Activated Carbon," Health Physics, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 867-872.

George, A.C. and Weber, T., 1990, "An Improved Passive Activated Carbon Collector for Measuring Environmental Radon-222 in Indoor Air," Health Physics, Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 583-589.

George, J.L., 1983, "Procedures Manual for the Estimation of Average Indoor Radon Daughter Concentrations by the Radon Grab Sampling Method," Bendix Field Engineering Corp., Grand Junction, Colorado, GJ/TMC-11(83) UC-70A.

Goldin, A.S., 1984, "Evaluation of Internal Quality Control Measurements and Radioassay," Health Physics, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 361-364.

Grodzins, L., 1988, Personal Communication, September 1988.

Jonsson, G., 1987, "Indoor Radon Gas and Its Detection with Kodak Plastic Film," Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas., Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 85-91 [Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum., Part D].

Kotrappa, P., Dempsey, J.C., Hickey, J.R., and Stieff, L.K., 1988, "An Electret Passive Environmental Rn-222 Monitor Based on Ionization Measurements," Health Physics, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 47-56.

Kotrappa, P., Dempsey, J.C., Ramsey, R.W., and Stieff, L.R., 1990, "A Practical E-PERM™ (Electret Passive Environmental Radon Monitor) System for Indoor 222Rn Measurement," Health Physics, Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 461-467.

Kusnetz, H.L., 1956, "Radon Daughters in Mine Atmospheres - A Field Method for Determining Concentrations," American Industrial Hygiene Association Quarterly, Vol. 17.

Lovett, D.B., 1969, "Track Etch Detectors for Alpha Exposure Estimation," Health Physics, Vol. 16, pp. 623-628.

Lucas, H.F., 1957, "Improved Low-Level Alpha Scintillation Counter for Radon," Review of Scientific Instruments," Vol. 28, p. 680.

Nazaroff, W.M. and Nero, A.V., 1988, Radon and Its Decay Products in Indoor Air, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Pasternack, B.S. and Harley, N.H., 1971, "Detection Limits for Radionuclides in the Analysis of Multi-Component Gamma Ray Spectrometer Data," Nuclear Instr. and Methods, Vol. 91, pp. 533-540.

Perlman, D., 1988, Personal Communication, September 1988.

Perlman, D., 1989, "Method of, and Passive Apparatus for, Detecting Radon," Brandeis University, Patent No. 4812648.

Prichard, H.M., 1988, Personal Communication, September 1988.

Prichard, H.M. and Marien, K., 1985, "A Passive Diffusion Rn-222 Sampler Based on Activated Carbon Adsorption," Health Physics, Vol. 48, No. 6., pp. 797-803.

Public Health Service (PHS), 1957, "Control of Radon and Daughters in Uranium Mines and Calculations on Biological Effects," PHS Report 494, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C., pp. 41-42.

Sill, C.W., 1977, "Integrating Air Sampler for Determination of Rn-222," in the Program Report on the Workshop on Methods for Measuring Radiation In and Around Uranium Mills, Vol. 8, No. 9, pp. 97-104, Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Washington, D.C.

Taylor, J.K., 1987, Quality Assurance of Chemical Measurements, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan.

Thomas, J.W., 1971, "Thoron Determination by a Two Filter Method," U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Health and Safety Report HASL-TM-71-1.

Thomas, J.W., 1972, "Measurement of Radon Daughters in Air," Health Physics, Vol. 23, p. 783.

Tsivoglou, E.C., Ayer, H.E., and Holaday, D.A., 1953, "Occurrence of Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Mixtures of Radon and Its Daughters," Nucleonics, Vol. 1, p. 40.

U.S. Department of Energy, 1990, "Procedures Manual," U.S. DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory, 376 Hudson Street, N.Y., N.Y. 10014-3621 (HASL-300).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1980, "Interim Guidelines and Specifications for Preparing Quality Assurance Project Plans," QAMS-005/80, Office of Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December 1984, "Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems: Volume I," EPA 600/9-76-005, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1986, "Interim Indoor Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurement Protocols," EPA 520/1-86-04, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1989a, "Indoor Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurement Protocols," EPA 520/1-89-009, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1989b, "Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report," EPA 520/1-89-010, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, 1992a (Second Edition), "A Citizen's Guide to Radon," 402-K-92-001, Office of Air and Radiation, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992b (Spring Draft), "Home Buyer's and Seller's Guide to Radon," Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992c (Summer Draft), "Protocols for Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurements in Homes," EPA-402-R-92-003, Office of Radiation Programs, Washington, D.C.

Table of Contents

Section 1

Section 2

Section 3

Appendixes

See also: Protocols for Radon and Radon Decay Product Measurements in Homes (available in PDF) (PDF, 47 pp., 674 K)

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