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Ecological Risk Assessment

Freshwater Screening Benchmarks

CAS# Analyte
Screening Value (ug/l)
Ref
End Note
Class of Compound Bioaccumulative-Bq
71-55-6 1,1,1-Trichloroethane
11
a
1
Volatile  
79-34-5 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
610
a
1
Volatile  
127-18-4 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)
111
b
2
Volatile  
79-00-5 1,1,2-Trichloroethane
1200
a
1
Volatile  
79-01-6 1,1,2-Trichloroethene (TCE)
21
b
2
   
92-52-4 1,1-Biphenyl
14
c
1
PAH  
75-34-3 1,1-Dichloroethane
47
c
1
Volatile  
75-35-4 1,1-Dichloroethene (1,1-Dichloroethylene)
25
a
1
Volatile  
75-35-4 1,1-Dichloroethylene
25
a
1
Volatile  
634-66-2 1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene
1.8
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile B
87-61-6 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene
8
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
95-94-3 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene
3
d
3
Other Semi-Volatile B
120-82-1 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
24
b
2
Volatile B
95-63-6 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene
33
e,f
4
Volatile B
95-50-1 1,2-Dichlorobenzene
0.7
b
2
Volatile B
107-06-2 1,2-Dichloroethane
100
b
2
Volatile  
540-59-0 1,2-Dichloroethene (1,2-Dichloroethylene)
590
a
1
Volatile  
540-59-0 1,2-Dichloroethylene
590
a
1
Volatile  
156-60-5 1,2-Trans-Dichloroethylene
970
g
5
Volatile  
108-67-8 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene
71
h,i
6
Volatile  
541-73-1 1,3-Dichlorobenzene
150
b
2
Volatile B
542-75-6 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-Dichloropropylene)
0.055
a
1
Volatile  
542-75-6 1,3-Dichloropropylene
0.055
a
1
Volatile  
106-46-7 1,4-Dichlorobenzene
26
b
2
Volatile B
99-08-1 1-Methyl-3-nitrobenzene
750
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
99-99-0 1-Methyl-4-nitrobenzene (4-Nitrotoluene)
1900
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
90-12-0 1-Methylnaphthalene
2.1
a
1
PAH  
71-41-0 1-Pentanol
110
a
1
Volatile  
10222-01-2 2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide
20
e,f
4,7
Other Semi-Volatile  
58-90-2 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol
1.2
d
3
Other Semi-Volatile  
1746-01-6 2,3,7,8-TCDD-Dioxin
3.1E-09
j
8
Dioxin/Furans B
51207-31-9 2,3,7,8-TCDF
 
k
9
Dioxin/Furans B
93-72-1 2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
30
d
3
Volatile  
93-76-5 2,4,5-Trichlorphenoxyacetic acid
686
l,m
10
Phenoxycaceticacid Herbicide  
634-93-5 2,4,6-Trichloroaniline
 
 
 
Other Semi-Volatile  
88-06-2 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
4.9
g
5
Other Semi-Volatile  
118-96-7 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)
100
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
120-83-2 2,4-Dichlorophenol
11
g
5
Other Semi-Volatile  
121-14-2 2,4-Dinitrotoluene
44
g
5
Other Semi-Volatile  
606-20-2 2,6-Dinitrotoluene
81
g
5
Other Semi-Volatile  
35572-78-2 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene
1480
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
78-93-3 2-Butanone
14000
a
1
Volatile  
95-57-8 2-Chlorophenol
24
d
3
Other Semi-Volatile  
591-78-6 2-Hexanone
99
a
1
Volatile  
534-52-1 2-Methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol
 
 
 
Other Semi-Volatile  
91-57-6 2-Methylnaphthalene
4.7
e,f
4
PAH  
95-48-7 2-Methylphenol
13
a
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
88-75-5 2-Nitrophenol
1920
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
111-13-7 2-Octanone
8.3
a
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
67-63-0 2-Propanol
7.5
a
1
Volatile  
91-94-1 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine
4.5
d
3
Other Semi-Volatile  
99-08-1 3-Nitrotoluene (1-Methyl-3-nitrobenzene)
750
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
106-68-3 3-Octanone
3571
a
11
Volatile  
101-55-3 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether
1.5
c
1
Other Semi-Volatile B
106-47-8 4-Chloroaniline
232
l,m
10
Other Semi-Volatile  
7005-72-3 4-Chlorophenyl- phenyl ether
 
 
 
Other Semi-Volatile B
99-87-6 4-Isopropyltoluene (Cymene)
85
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
108-10-1 4-Methyl-2-pentanone
170
a
1
Volatile  
106-44-5 4-Methylphenol
543
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
100-02-7 4-Nitrophenol
60
a
12
Other Semi-Volatile  
99-99-0 4-Nitrotoluene
1900
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
83-32-9 Acenaphthene
5.8
b
2
PAH B
208-96-8 Acenapthylene
 
 
 
PAH B
67-64-1 Acetone
1500
a
1
Volatile  
75-05-8 Acetonitrile
12000
g
5
Volatile  
309-00-2 Aldrin
3
n
13
Organochlorine Pesticide B
7429-90-5 Aluminum
87
n
13
Inorganic/Metal  
7664-41-7 Ammonia (un-ionized)
19
b
2
Inorganic  
62-53-3 Aniline
2.2
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
120-12-7 Anthracene
0.012
b
2
PAH B
7440-36-0 Antimony
30
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
140-57-8 Aramite
3.09
I,m
10
Other Semi-Volatile  
12674-11-2 Aroclor 1016 (total PCBs)
0.000074
j
8
Other Pesticide/PCB B
11104-28-2 Aroclor 1221 (total PCBs)
0.000074
j
8
Other Pesticide/PCB B
11141-16-5 Aroclor 1232 (total PCBs)
0.000074
j
8
Other Pesticide/PCB B
53469-21-9 Aroclor 1242 (total PCBs)
0.000074
j
8
Other Pesticide/PCB B
12672-29-6 Aroclor 1248 (total PCBs)
0.000074
j
8
Other Pesticide/PCB B
11097-69-1 Aroclor 1254 (total PCBs)
0.000074
j
8
Other Pesticide/PCB B
11096-82-5 Aroclor 1260 (total PCBs)
0.000074
j
8
Other Pesticide/PCB B
7440-38-2 Arsenic
5
b
2
Inorganic/Metal B
22569-72-8 Arsenic III
55
a
14
Inorganic/Metal  
17428-41-0 Arsenic V
3.1
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
1912-24-9 Atrazine
1.8
b
2
Triazine Herbicide  
86-50-0 Azinophosmethyl (Guthion)
0.01
n
13
Organophosphorus Pesticide  
60-11-7 Azobenzene (p-Dimethylamino azobenzene)
 
 
 
Other Semi-Volatile  
7440-39-3 Barium
4
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
71-43-2 Benzene
370
b
2
Volatile  
92-87-5 Benzidine
3.9
a
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
56-55-3 Benzo(a)anthracene
0.018
b
2
PAH B
50-32-8 Benzo(a)pyrene
0.015
b
2
PAH B
205-99-2 Benzo(b)fluoranthene
 
 
 
PAH B
191-24-2 Benzo(g,h,i)perylene
 
 
 
PAH B
207-08-9 Benzo(k)fluoranthene
 
 
 
PAH B
65-85-0 Benzoic Acid
42
a
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
100-51-6 Benzyl alcohol
8.6
a
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
7440-41-7 Beryllium
0.66
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
608-73-1 BHC
 
 
 
Organochlorine Pesticide  
  BHC (non Lindane)
2.2
a
1
Organochlorine Pesticide  
319-84-6 BHC, alpha
 
 
 
Organochlorine Pesticide B
319-85-7 BHC, beta
 
 
 
Organochlorine Pesticide B
319-86-8 BHC, delta
141
h,i
6
Organochlorine Pesticide B
58-89-9 BHC, gamma (Lindane)
0.01
b
2
Organochlorine Pesticide B
92-52-4 Biphenyl (1,1-Biphenyl)
14
c
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
117-81-7 bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
16
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
7440-42-8 Boron
1.6
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
75-25-2 Bromoform
320
c
1
Volatile  
74-83-9 Bromomethane
 
 
 
Volatile  
85-68-7 Butyl benzyl phthalate
19
c
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
7440-43-9 Cadmium (hardness=100)
0.25
n
15
Inorganic/Metal B
7440-70-2 Calcium
116000
a
16
Inorganic/Metal  
63-25-2 Carbaryl (Sevin)
0.2
b
2
Other Pesticide/PCB  
1563-66-2 Carbofuran
1.8
b
2
N-Methylcarbamate herbicide  
75-15-0 Carbon disulfide
0.92
a
1
Volatile  
56-23-5 Carbon tetrachloride
13.3
b
2
Volatile  
57-74-9 Chlordane
0.0022
n
13
Organochlorine Pesticide B
16887-00-6 Chloride
230000
n
13
Inorganic/Metal  
7782-50-5 Chlorine (TRC)
11
n
13
Inorganic/Metal  
108-90-7 Chlorobenzene
1.3
b
2
Volatile  
510-15-6 Chlorobenzilate
7.16
l,m
10
Other Pesticide/PCB  
67-66-3 Chloroform
1.8
b
2
Volatile  
2921-88-2 Chloropyrifos
0.0035
b
2
Organophosphorus Pesticide B
16065-83-1 Chromium III (hardness=100)
74
n
15
Inorganic/Metal  
7440-47-3 Chromium Total (hardness=100)
85
n
 
Inorganic/Metal  
18540-29-9 Chromium VI (hardness=100)
11
n
 
Inorganic/Metal B
218-01-9 Chrysene
 
 
 
PAH B
7440-48-4 Cobalt
23
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
7440-50-8 Copper (hardness=100)
9
n
13,15
Inorganic/Metal B
98-82-8 Cumene
2.6
e,f
4
Volatile  
57-12-5 Cyanide, free
5
b
2
Inorganic/Metal  
99-87-6 Cymene
85
h,i
6
Volatile  
72-54-8 DDD (p,p')
0.011
a
1
Organochlorine Pesticide B
72-55-9 DDE
 
 
 
Organochlorine Pesticide B
50-29-3 DDT (4,4' DDT)
0.0005
n
13
Organochlorine Pesticide B
  DDT (op + pp)
 
 
 
Organochlorine Pesticide B
  DDT, Total
 
 
 
Organochlorine Pesticide B
  DDT/DDE/DDD (total)
0.000011
j
8
Organochlorine Pesticide B
124-18-5 Decane
49
a
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
8065-48-3 Demeton
0.1
n
13
Other Semi-Volatile  
117-81-7 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate)
16
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
333-41-5 Diazinon
0.043
a
1
Other Pesticide/PCB B
53-70-3 Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
 
 
 
PAH B
132-64-9 Dibenzofuran
3.7
a
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
3252-43-5 Dibromoacetonitrile
20
e,f
4,7
Other Semi-Volatile  
25321-22-6 Dichlorobenzene (mixed isomers)
5
e,f
4,17
Volatile  
75-09-2 Dichloromethane
98.1
b
2
Volatile  
SEQ NO-35-8 Dichlorophenols, total
0.2
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
542-75-6 Dichloropropene (1,3-Dichloropropylene)
0.055
a
1
Volatile  
115-32-2 Dicofol (Kelthane)
 
 
 
Other Pesticide/PCB B
60-57-1 Dieldrin
0.056
n
13
Organochlorine Pesticide B
84-66-2 Diethylphthalate
210
a
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
60-51-5 Dimethoate
6.2
b
2
Other Pesticide/PCB  
131-11-3 Dimethyl phthalate
 
 
 
Other Semi-Volatile  
84-74-2 Di-n-butyl phthalate
19
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
117-84-0 Di-n-octyl phthalate
22
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
88-85-7 Dinoseb
0.05
b
2
Other Pesticide/PCB  
117-84-0 Dioctylphthalate (Di-n-octyl phthalate)
22
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
298-04-4 Disulfoton
 
 
 
Pesticide B
115-29-7 Endosulfan (alpha and beta)
0.02
b
2
Organochlorine Pesticide B
959-98-8 Endosulfan I (a-endosulfan)
0.051
c
1
Organochlorine Pesticide B
33213-65-9 Endosulfan II (b-endosulfan)
0.051
c
1
Organochlorine Pesticide B
1031-07-8 Endosulfan sulfate
 
 
 
Organochlorine Pesticide  
72-20-8 Endrin
0.036
n
13
Organochlorine Pesticide B
100-41-4 Ethylbenzene
90
b
2
Volatile  
107-06-2 Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane)
100
b
2
Volatile  
107-21-1 Ethylene glycol
192000
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
206-44-0 Fluoranthene
0.04
b
2
PAH B
86-73-7 Fluorene
3
b
2
PAH B
16984-48-8 Fluoride (hardness = 100)
2119.4
e,f
4,15
Inorganic  
7782-41-4 Fluorine
1080
a
12
Inorganic  
86-50-0 Guthion
0.01
n
13
Other Pesticide/PCB  
319-86-8 HCH, d- (BHC, delta)
141
h,i
6
Organochlorine Pesticide  
58-89-9 HCH, gamma (Lindane) (BHC, gamma)
0.01
b
2
Organochlorine Pesticide  
76-44-8 Heptachlor
0.0019
n
13
Organochlorine Pesticide B
  Heptachlor & Heptachlor epoxide
 
 
 
Organochlorine Pesticide B
1024-57-3 Heptachlor epoxide
0.0019
n
13
Organochlorine Pesticide B
118-74-1 Hexachlorobenzene
0.0003
d
18
Other Semi-Volatile B
87-68-3 Hexachlorobutadiene
1.3
b
2
Volatile B
608-73-1 Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH, BHC)
0.01
b
2
Organochlorine Pesticide B
77-47-4 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
 
 
 
Organochlorine Pesticide B
67-72-1 Hexachloroethane
12
c
1
Volatile B
110-54-3 Hexane
0.58
a
1
Volatile  
2691-41-0 HMX (Octogen)
150
h,i
6
Other Pesticide/PCB  
302-01-2 Hydrazine (hardness <50)
5
e,f
4
Volatile  
302-01-2 Hydrazine (hardness =>50)
10
e,f
4
Volatile  
123-31-9 Hydroquinone
2.2
e,f
4
Other Semi-Volatile  
193-39-5 Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene
 
 
 
PAH B
7439-89-6 Iron
300
b
2
Inorganic/Metal  
29761-21-5 Isodecyl diphenyl phosphate
1.7
e,f
4
Other Semi-Volatile  
98-82-8 Isopropylbenzene (Cumene)
2.6
e,f
4
   
  Isothiazolones, total
1
e,f
4
Other Semi-Volatile  
7439-92-1 Lead (hardness=100)
2.5
n
13,15
Inorganic/Metal B
58-89-9 Lindane (BHC,gamma)
0.01
b
2
Organochlorine Pesticide  
  Linear alkyl benzene sulfates (LAS)
40
e,f
4,19
Other Semi-Volatile  
7439-93-2 Lithium
14
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
7439-95-4 Magnesium
82000
a
16
Inorganic/Metal  
121-75-5 Malathion
0.097
c
1
Other Pesticide/PCB  
7439-96-5 Manganese
120
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
7439-97-6 Mercury
0.026
b
2
Inorganic/Metal  
72-43-5 Methoxychlor
0.019
c
1
Organochlorine Pesticide B
78-93-3 Methyl ethyl ketone (2-Butanone)
14000
a
1
Volatile  
111-13-7 Methyl hexyl ketone (2-Octanone)
8.3
a
1
Volatile  
108-10-1 Methyl isobutyl ketone (4-Methyl-2-pentanone)
170
a
1
Volatile  
80-62-6 Methyl methacrylate
2800
I,m
10
Volatile  
1634-04-4 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)
11070
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
6317-18-6 Methylene bisthiocyanate
1
e,f
4
Other Semi-Volatile  
75-09-2 Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane)
98.1
b
2
Volatile  
22967-92-6 Methylmercury
0.004
b
2
Volatile B
2385-85-5 Mirex
0.001
n
13
Chlorinated Pesticides B
7439-98-7 Molybdenum
73
b
2
Inorganic/Metal  
108-90-7 Monochlorobenzene (Chlorobenzene)
1.3
b
2
   
  Monochlorophenols, total
7
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
91-20-3 Naphthalene
1.1
b
2
PAH  
84-74-2 n-Butylphthalate (Di-n-butyl phthalate)
19
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
7440-02-0 Nickel (hardness=100)
52
n
13,15
Inorganic/Metal B
139-13-9 Nitrilotriacetic acid
5000
e,f
4,20
   
  Nitrite (cold water)
20
e,f
4
Anion  
  Nitrite (warm water)
100
e,f
4
Anion  
55-63-0 Nitroglycerine
138
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
55-18-5 N-Nitrosodiethylamine
768
I,m
10
Other Semi-Volatile  
62-75-9 N-Nitrosodimethylamine
117
o
21
Other Semi-Volatile  
86-30-6 N-Nitrosodiphenylamine
210
a
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
95-48-7 o-Cresol (2-Methylphenol)
13
a
1
Other Semi-Volatile  
56-38-2 Parathion
0.013
n
13
PAH  
  Parathion and methyl parathion
0.008
e,f
4
Organophosphorus Pesticide  
1336-36-3 PCBs, total
0.000074
j
8
Other Pesticide/PCB  
106-44-5 p-Cresol (4-Methylphenol)
543
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
608-93-5 Pentachlorobenzene
6
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile B
76-01-7 Pentachloroethane
56.4
l,m
10
Other Semi-Volatile  
87-86-5 Pentachlorophenol (pH = 7.8)
0.5
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile B
78-11-5 PETN (Pentaerythrite-tetranitrate)
85000
h,i
6
Other Semi-Volatile  
  pH
6.5-9
b
2
Inorganic  
85-01-8 Phenanthrene
0.4
b
2
PAH B
108-95-2 Phenol
4
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile B
100-42-5 Phenylethylene
72
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
298-02-2 Phorate
3.62
l,m
10
   
7723-14-0 Phosphorus
 
p
22
Inorganic/Metal  
51207-31-9 Polychlorinated dibenzofurans
 
k
9
Dioxins/Furans  
  Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD-S)
 
k
9
Dioxins/Furans  
7440-09-7 Potassium
53000
a
16
Inorganic/Metal  
103-65-1 Propyl benzene
128
h,i
6
Volatile  
129-00-0 Pyrene
0.025
b
2
PAH B
110-86-1 Pyridine
2380
l,m
10
Volatile  
  Quaternary ammonium compounds, total
10
e,f
4
Inorganic  
121-82-4 RDX (Cyclonite)
360
h,i
6
Explosive  
7782-49-2 Selenium
1
b
2
Inorganic/Metal B
7440-22-4 Silver (hardness = 100)
3.2
n
13,15
Inorganic/Metal B
7440-23-5 Sodium
680000
a
16
Inorganic/Metal  
7440-24-6 Strontium
1500
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
100-42-5 Styrene (Phenylethylene)
72
b
2
Volatile  
7783-06-4 Sulfide (Hydrogen Sulfide)
2
n
13
Anion  
  Sulfite
200
e,f
4
Anion  
95-94-3 Tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene)
3
d
3
Other Semi-Volatile  
79-34-5 Tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane)
610
a
1
Volatile  
127-18-4 Tetrachloroethene (1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene)
111
b
2
Volatile  
127-18-4 Tetrachloroethylene (1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene)
111
b
2
Volatile  
56-23-5 Tetrachloromethane (Carbon tetrachloride)
13.3
b
2
Volatile  
  Tetrachlorophenols, total
1
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
7440-28-0 Thallium
0.8
b
2
Inorganic/Metal  
7440-31-5 Tin
73
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
108-88-3 Toluene
2
b
2
Volatile  
8001-35-2 Toxaphene
0.0002
n
13
Organochlorine Pesticide B
156-60-5 trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (1,2-trans-Dichloroethylene)
970
g
5
Volatile  
75-25-2 Tribromomethane (Bromoform)
320
c
1
Volatile  
688-73-3 Tributyltin
0.008
b
2
Inorganic/Metal B
12002-48-1 Trichlorobenzene (mixed isomers)
5
e,f
4,23
Other Semi-Volatile  
79-00-5 Trichloroethane (1,1,2-Trichloroethane)
1200
a
1
Volatile  
79-01-6 Trichloroethene (Trichloroethylene)
21
b
2
Volatile  
79-01-6 Trichloroethylene
21
b
2
Volatile  
67-66-3 Trichloromethane (Chloroform)
1.8
b
2
Volatile  
25167-82-2 Trichlorophenols, total
18
b
2
Other Semi-Volatile  
1582-09-8 Trifluralin
0.2
b
2
   
115-86-6 Triphenyl phosphate
4
e,f
4
Other Semi-Volatile  
7440-61-1 Uranium (hardness = 100)
2.6
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
7440-62-2 Vanadium
20
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  
1314-62-1 Vanadium pentoxide
15
h,i
6
Inorganic/Metal  
108-05-4 Vinyl acetate
16
a
1
Volatile  
100-42-5 Vinyl benzene (Pheylethylene)
72
b
2
Volatile  
75-01-4 Vinyl chloride
930
d
3
Volatile  
75-35-4 Vinylidene chloride (1,1-Dichloroethylene)
25
a
1
Volatile  
108-38-3 Xylene, m-
1.8
c
1
Volatile  
1330-20-7 Xylenes (total)
13
a
1
Volatile  
7440-66-6 Zinc (hardness = 100)
120
n
15
Inorganic/Metal B
7440-67-7 Zirconium
17
a
1
Inorganic/Metal  

Note: Values are expressed in terms of dissolved analyte in the water column except for those indicated with endnote 2 which are expressed in terms of total concentration.

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Notes and References

Literature Cited

a Suter, G.W. II, and Tsao, C.L. 1996. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Aquatic Biota: 1996 Revision. ES/ER/TM-96/R2.

b CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment). 2003. Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines: Summary Table December 2003. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Available at: http://www.ccme.ca/publications/ceqg_rcqe.html .Click here to read the "Exit EPA Website" Disclaimer

c U.S. EPA. OSWER (Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response). 1996. Eco Update: Ecotox thresholds. Washington, D.C. EPA 540/F-95/038. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/pdf/eco_updt.pdf

d Michigan DEQ (Department of Environmental Quality). 2002. Rule 57: Water Quality Values. Available at: http://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/wb-swas-rule57_210455_7.xlsClick here to read the "Exit EPA Website" Disclaimer

e NY DEC (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation), Division of Water. 1993. Technical and Operational Guidance Series (1.1.1). Ambient Water Quality Standards and Guidance Values and Groundwater Effluent Limitations. Available at: http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/water_pdf/togs111.pdfClick here to read the "Exit EPA Website" Disclaimer

f NYCRR (New York Compilation of Codes, Rules, and Regulations). 1999. Title 6, Part 706.

g Ohio EPA, Division of Surface Water. 2002. Ohio Administrative Code (OAC) 3745-1-07: Water Use Designations and Statewide Criteria.

h TNRCC (Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission), Toxicology and Risk Assessment Section. December 2001. Guidance for Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments at Remediation Sites in Texas.

i TNRCC (Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission). 2000. Texas Surface Water Quality Standards. Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Title 30, Chapter 307. Effective August 17, 2000. Available at: http://www.tceq.texas.gov/waterquality/standards/WQ_standards_1997.htmlClick here to read the "Exit EPA Website" Disclaimer

j U.S. EPA 1995. Final Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes System. 40CFR Parts 9, 122, 123, 131 and 132. March 23, 1995, 15366-15425. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/npdes/regulations/greatlakes_fedregstr.pdf

k Van den Berg, M., Birnbaum, L., Bosveld, A.T.C., Brunstrom, B., Cook, P., Feeley, M., Giesy, J.P., Hanberg, A., Hasegawa, R., Kennedy, S.W., Kubiak, T., Larsen, J.C., Rolaf van Leeuwen, F.X., Liem, A.K.D., Nolt, C., Peterson, R.E., Poellinger, L., Safe, S., Schrenk, D., Tillitt, D., Tysklind, M., Younes, M., Waern, F., and Zacharewski, T. 1998. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environmental Health Perspectives. 106 (12): 775-792.

l U.S. EPA Region 5. 2003. Region 5 EDQL for all media.

m U.S. EPA Region 5. 1999. Ecological Screening Levels for RCRA Appendix IX Hazardous Constituents. Draft Document.

n U.S. EPA. 2004. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria: 2004.

oOregon DEQ (Department of Environmental Quality). 1998. Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessment: Level II Screening Benchmark Values. Updated December 2001. Oregon Dept. Env. Qual., Portland. SLV-2. Available at: http://www.deq.state.or.us/wmc/documents/eco-2slv.pdfClick here to read the "Exit EPA Website" Disclaimer

p U.S. EPA. Ecoregional Nutrient Criteria.

q U.S. EPA. 2000. Bioaccumulation Testing and Interpretation for the Purpose of Sediment Quality Assessment.

End Notes

1GLWQI Tier II values (U.S. EPA OSWER 1996c, Suter and Tsao 1996a).

2The Canadian Water Quality Guidelines values refer to the total concentration in an unfiltered sample.

3Final Chronic Value.

4Value calculated using Tier I or Tier II methodology as described in NYCRR (1999f).

5Data are Ohio River Basin aquatic life Tier II values from the OMZA.

6Values derived using LC50 approach in accordance with methodology defined in TNRCC (2000i, 2001h). Concentrations of non-persistent toxic materials shall not exceed concentrations which are chronically toxic (0.1 of acute LC50 values) to the most sensitive aquatic species. Concentrations of persistent toxic materials that do not bioaccumulate shall not exceed concentrations which are chronically toxic (0.05 of LC50 values) to the most sensitive aquatic species. Concentrations of toxic materials that bioaccumulate shall not exceed concentrations that are chronically toxic (0.01 of LC50) to the most sensitive aquatic species.

7The screening value of 20 ug/L is for 2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide and dibromoacetonitrile combined.

8This value is based on the food chain and not direct toxicity.

9Congener- and receptor-specific dioxin equivalency.

10Value is based on an interim criterion developed according to the procedures described in U.S. EPA Region 5 (1999m). Source data used in developing interim criteria were obtained through the Aquatic Toxicity Information Retrieval (ACQUIRE) database.

11Value is the lowest test EC20 for fish (Suter and Tsao 1996a).

12Value is the lowest population EC20 (Suter and Tsao 1996a).

13Criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) values are used rather than Criteria Maximum Concentration (CMC) values. The CMC is an estimate of the highest concentration of a material in surface water to which an aquatic community can be exposed briefly without resulting in an unacceptable effect. The CCC is an estimate of the highest concentration of a material in surface water to which an aquatic community can be exposed indefinitely without resulting in an unacceptable effect. No CCC value is available for silver, therefore the CMC value is used.

14Value is the lowest sensitive species test EC20 for (Suter and Tsao 1996a).

15See Freshwater Values for Hardness-Dependent Contaminants table if hardness does not equal 100. AWQC (2002 n) and Suter and Tsao (1996a) values were used instead of CCME (2002b) values if equations for variable hardness were not provided in the CCME document. The CCME values are: 0.017 ug/l cadmium, 8.9 ug/l chromium III, 1 ug/l chromium VI, 0.1 ug/l silver, and 30 ug/l zinc.

16Lowest Chronic Value for Daphnids (Suter and Tsao 1996a).

17Applies to the sum of 1,2-, 1,3- and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

18Wildlife value.

19LAS with side chains greater than 13 carbons only; applies to the sum of these substances. 1996a

20Applies to nitrilotriacetate (NY DEC 1993e).

21Oregon Water Quality Criteria Freshwater acute criteria divided by 50, for acute to chronic conversion (Oregon DEQ 1998o ).

22Select a value from the criteria documents (Lakes and Reservoirs, Rivers and Streams) for the ecoregion, which corresponds to the site location.

23Applies to the sum of 1,2,3-, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene.

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Benchmark Selection

The screening benchmarks were selected utilizing numerous criteria. Priority was given to values based on direct toxicity over food chain modeling, as site specific food chain exposure modeling and assessment is strongly encouraged for all bioaccumulative compounds. Values under consideration were rejected if the source documents did not provide original citations and the ECOTOX database indicated no studies were available. Acute and subacute exposures and lethal endpoints were accepted if appropriate safety factors were applied. Values for individual Aroclors and PAHs which were based solely on extrapolation from another mixture or compound in the class were rejected. Preference was given to total rather than individual chemical forms for inorganics.

Hierarchy for Selection of Freshwater Benchmarks

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