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Ecological Risk Assessment

Freshwater Sediment Screening Benchmarks

CAS# Analyte FW Sed
(mg/kg)
Ref End Note Class of Compound Bioaccumulative-Bo
71-55-6 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 0.0302 a,b 1 Volatile  
79-34-5 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 1.36 a,b 1 Volatile  
127-18-4 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) 0.468 a,b 1 Volatile  
79-00-5 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 1.24 a,b 1 Volatile  
79-01-6 1,1,2-Trichloroethene (TCE) 0.0969 a,b 1    
92-52-4 1,1-Biphenyl 1.22 a,b 1 PAH  
75-35-4 1,1-Dichloroethene (1,1-Dichloroethylene) 0.031 a,b 1 Volatile  
75-35-4 1,1-Dichloroethylene 0.031 a,b 1 Volatile  
634-66-2 1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene 0.702 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile B
87-61-6 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 0.858 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
95-94-3 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 1.09 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile B
120-82-1 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 2.1 a,b 1 Volatile B
95-63-6 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene       Volatile B
95-50-1 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 0.0165 a,b 1 Volatile B
156-60-5 1,2-Trans-Dichloroethylene 1.05 a,b 1 Volatile  
541-73-1 1,3-Dichlorobenzene 4.43 a,b 1 Volatile B
542-75-6 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-Dichloropropylene) 0.0000509 a,b 1 Volatile  
542-75-6 1,3-Dichloropropylene 0.0000509 a,b 1 Volatile  
106-46-7 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 0.599 a,b 1 Volatile B
99-99-0 1-Methyl-4-nitrobenzene (4-Nitrotoluene) 4.06 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
58-90-2 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol 0.284 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
1746-01-6 2,3,7,8-TCDD-Dioxin 0.00000085 d   Dioxin/Furans B
51207-31-9 2,3,7,8-TCDF   d 2 Dioxin/Furans B
93-72-1 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) 0.675 a,b 1 Volatile  
93-76-5 2,4,5-Trichlorphenoxyacetic acid 12.3 a,b 1 Phenoxycaceticacid Herbicide  
88-06-2 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 0.213 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
118-96-7 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 0.092 e   Other Semi-Volatile  
120-83-2 2,4-Dichlorophenol 0.117 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
105-67-9 2,4-Dimethylphenol 0.029 f 3 Other Semi-Volatile  
121-14-2 2,4-Dinitrotoluene 0.0416 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
95-57-8 2-Chlorophenol 0.0312 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
91-57-6 2-Methylnaphthalene 0.0202 c   PAH  
91-94-1 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine 0.127 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
101-55-3 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether 1.23 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile B
7005-72-3 4-Chlorophenyl- phenyl ether       Other Semi-Volatile B
106-44-5 4-Methylphenol 0.67 f 3 Other Semi-Volatile  
99-99-0 4-Nitrotoluene 4.06 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
83-32-9 Acenaphthene 0.0067 c   PAH B
208-96-8 Acenapthylene 0.0059 c   PAH B
309-00-2 Aldrin 0.002 g 4 Organochlorine Pesticide B
120-12-7 Anthracene 0.0572 h   PAH B
7440-36-0 Antimony 2 i 5 Inorganic/Metal  
12674-11-2 Aroclor 1016 (PCBs, total)       Other Pesticide/PCB B
11104-28-2 Aroclor 1221 (PCBs, total)       Other Pesticide/PCB B
11141-16-5 Aroclor 1232 (PCBs, total)       Other Pesticide/PCB B
53469-21-9 Aroclor 1242 (PCBs, total)       Other Pesticide/PCB B
12672-29-6 Aroclor 1248 (PCBs, total)       Other Pesticide/PCB B
11097-69-1 Aroclor 1254 (PCBs, total)       Other Pesticide/PCB B
11096-82-5 Aroclor 1260 (PCBs, total)       Other Pesticide/PCB B
7440-38-2 Arsenic 9.8 h   Inorganic/Metal B
1912-24-9 Atrazine 0.00662 a,b 1 Triazine Hersicide  
86-50-0 Azinophosmethyl (Guthion) 0.0000505 a,b 1 Organophosphorus Pesticide  
56-55-3 Benzo(a)anthracene 0.108 h   PAH B
50-32-8 Benzo(a)pyrene 0.15 h   PAH B
  Benzo(b+k)fluoranthene 0.0272 j   PAH B
191-24-2 Benzo(g,h,i)perylene 0.17 g   PAH B
207-08-9 Benzo(k)fluoranthene 0.24 g   PAH B
65-85-0 Benzoic Acid 0.65 f 3 Other Semi-Volatile  
319-84-6 BHC, alpha 0.006 g   Organochlorine Pesticide B
319-85-7 BHC, beta 0.005 g   Organochlorine Pesticide B
319-86-8 BHC, delta 6.4 a,b 1 Organochlorine Pesticide B
58-89-9 BHC, gamma (Lindane) 0.00237 h   Organochlorine Pesticide B
92-52-4 Biphenyl (1,1-Biphenyl) 1.22 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
117-81-7 bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 0.18 k   Other Semi-Volatile  
75-25-2 Bromoform 0.654 a,b 1 Volatile  
85-68-7 Butyl benzyl phthalate 10.9 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
7440-43-9 Cadmium 0.99 h 6 Inorganic/Metal B
63-25-2 Carbaryl (Sevin) 0.000418 a,b 1 Other Pesticide/PCB  
1563-66-2 Carbofuran 0.00344 a,b 1 N-Methylcarbamate Herbicide  
75-15-0 Carbon disulfide 0.000851 a,b 1 Volatile  
56-23-5 Carbon tetrachloride 0.0642 a,b 1 Volatile  
57-74-9 Chlordane 0.00324 h   Organochlorine Pesticide B
108-90-7 Chlorobenzene 0.00842 a,b 1 Volatile  
510-15-6 Chlorobenzilate 1.45 a,b 1 Other Pesticide/PCB  
2921-88-2 Chloropyrifos 0.00519 a,b 1 Organophosphorus Pesticide B
7440-47-3 Chromium 43.4 h 6 Inorganic/Metal  
218-01-9 Chrysene 0.166 h   PAH B
156-59-2 cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene)       Volatile B
156-59-2 cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene       Volatile B
7440-48-4 Cobalt 50 g 4 Inorganic/Metal  
7440-50-8 Copper 31.6 h 6 Inorganic/Metal B
98-82-8 Cumene 0.086 a,b 1 Volatile  
  Cyanide, complex, total       Inorganic/Metal  
57-12-5 Cyanide, free 0.1 g 4 Inorganic/Metal  
72-54-8 DDD (p,p') 0.00488 h   Organochlorine Pesticide B
72-55-9 DDE 0.00316 h   Organochlorine Pesticide B
  DDT, total 0.00416 h   Organochlorine Pesticide B
  DDT/DDE/DDD, total 0.00528 h   Organochlorine Pesticide B
333-41-5 Diazinon 0.00239 a,b 1 Other Pesticide/PCB B
53-70-3 Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene 0.033 h   PAH B
132-64-9 Dibenzofuran 0.415 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
542-75-6 Dichloropropene (1,3-Dichloropropylene) 0.0000509 a,b 1 Volatile  
115-32-2 Dicofol (Kelthane)       Other Pesticide/PCB B
60-57-1 Dieldrin 0.0019 h   Organochlorine Pesticide B
84-66-2 Diethylphthalate 0.603 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
84-74-2 Di-n-butyl phthalate 6.47 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
88-85-7 Dinoseb 0.000611 a,b 1 Other Pesticide/PCB  
298-04-4 Disulfoton       Pesticide B
115-29-7 Endosulfan (alpha and beta) 0.00214 a,b 1 Organochlorine Pesticide B
959-98-8 Endosulfan I (a-endosulfan) 0.0029 l   Organochlorine Pesticide B
33213-65-9 Endosulfan II (b-endosulfan) 0.014 l   Organochlorine Pesticide B
1031-07-8 Endosulfan sulfate 0.0054 l 7 Organochlorine Pesticide  
72-20-8 Endrin 0.00222 h   Organochlorine Pesticide B
100-41-4 Ethylbenzene 1.1 a,b 1 Volatile  
206-44-0 Fluoranthene 0.423 h   PAH B
86-73-7 Fluorene 0.0774 h   PAH B
86-50-0 Guthion 0.0000505 a,b 1 Other Pesticide/PCB  
319-84-6 HCH, a- (BHC, alpha) 0.006 g   Organochlorine Pesticide  
319-85-7 HCH, b- (BHC, beta) 0.005 g   Organochlorine Pesticide  
319-86-8 HCH, d- (BHC, delta) 6.4 a,b 1 Organochlorine Pesticide  
58-89-9 HCH, gamma (Lindane) (BHC, gamma) 0.00237 h   Organochlorine Pesticide  
76-44-8 Heptachlor 0.068 f 8 Organochlorine Pesticide B
1024-57-3 Heptachlor epoxide 0.00247 h   Organochlorine Pesticide B
118-74-1 Hexachlorobenzene 0.02 g 4 Other Semi-Volatile B
87-68-3 Hexachlorobutadiene       Volatile B
608-73-1 Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH, BHC) 0.003 g 4 Organochlorine Pesticide B
77-47-4 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene       Organochlorine Pesticide B
67-72-1 Hexachloroethane 1.027 a,b 1 Volatile B
110-54-3 Hexane 0.0396 a,b 1 Volatile  
193-39-5 Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 0.017 j 9 PAH B
7439-89-6 Iron 20000 g   Inorganic/Metal  
98-82-8 Isopropylbenzene (Cumene) 0.086 a,b 1    
7439-92-1 Lead 35.8 h 6 Inorganic/Metal B
58-89-9 Lindane (BHC,gamma) 0.00237 h   Organochlorine Pesticide  
121-75-5 Malathion 0.000203 a,b 1 Other Pesticide/PCB  
7439-96-5 Manganese 460 g 4 Inorganic/Metal  
7439-97-6 Mercury 0.18 h   Inorganic/Metal  
72-43-5 Methoxychlor 0.0187 a,b 1 Organochlorine Pesticide B
22967-92-6 Methylmercury       Volatile B
2385-85-5 Mirex 0.007 g 4 Chlorinated Pesticides B
108-90-7 Monochlorobenzene (Chlorobenzene) 0.00842 a,b 1    
91-20-3 Naphthalene 0.176 h   PAH  
84-74-2 n-Butylphthalate (Di-n-butyl phthalate) 6.47 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
7440-02-0 Nickel 22.7 h 6 Inorganic/Metal B
86-30-6 N-Nitrosodiphenylamine 2.68 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
  PAHs, High Molecular Weight 0.19 j 9 PAH  
  PAHs, Low Molecular Weight 0.076 j   PAH  
SEQ NO-27-3 PAHs, total 1.61 h 10 PAH  
56-38-2 Parathion 0.000757 a,b 1 PAH  
1336-36-3 PCBs, total 0.0598 h 2 Other Pesticide/PCB B
106-44-5 p-Cresol (4-Methylphenol) 0.67 f 3 Other Semi-Volatile  
608-93-5 Pentachlorobenzene 8.89 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile B
76-01-7 Pentachloroethane 0.826 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
82-68-8 Pentachloronitrobenzene       Pesticide B
87-86-5 Pentachlorophenol 0.504 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile B
85-01-8 Phenanthrene 0.204 h   PAH B
108-95-2 Phenol 0.42 f 3 Other Semi-Volatile B
100-42-5 Phenylethylene 0.559 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
298-02-2 Phorate 0.201 a,b 1    
51207-31-9 Polychlorinated dibenzofurans   d 2 Dioxins/Furans  
  Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD-S)   d 2 Dioxins/Furans  
129-00-0 Pyrene 0.195 h   PAH B
121-82-4 RDX (Cyclonite) 0.013 e   Explosive  
7782-49-2 Selenium 2 m   Inorganic/Metal B
7440-22-4 Silver 1.0 i 5,6 Inorganic/Metal B
100-42-5 Styrene (Phenylethylene) 0.559 a,b 1 Volatile  
18946-25-8 Sulfides 130 n 11 Anion  
95-94-3 Tetrachlorobenzene (1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene) 1.09 a,b 1 Other Semi-Volatile  
79-34-5 Tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane) 1.36 a,b 1 Volatile  
127-18-4 Tetrachloroethene (1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene) 0.468 a,b 1 Volatile  
127-18-4 Tetrachloroethylene (1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene) 0.468 a,b 1 Volatile  
56-23-5 Tetrachloromethane (Carbon tetrachloride) 0.0642 a,b 1 Volatile  
8001-35-2 Toxaphene 0.0001 c   Organochlorine Pesticide B
156-60-5 trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (1,2-trans-Dichloroethylene) 1.05 a,b 1 Volatile  
75-25-2 Tribromomethane (Bromoform) 0.654 a,b 1 Volatile  
688-73-3 Tributyltin       Inorganic/Metal B
79-00-5 Trichloroethane (1,1,2-Trichloroethane) 1.24 a,b 1 Volatile  
79-01-6 Trichloroethene (Trichloroethylene) 0.0969 a,b 1 Volatile  
79-01-6 Trichloroethylene 0.0969 a,b 1 Volatile  
1582-09-8 Trifluralin 0.355 a,b 1    
100-42-5 Vinyl benzene (Phenylethylene) 0.559 a,b 1 Volatile  
75-35-4 Vinylidene chloride (1,1-Dichloroethylene) 0.031 a,b 1 Volatile  
108-38-3 Xylene, m- 0.0252 a,b 1 Volatile  
7440-66-6 Zinc 121 h 6 Inorganic/Metal B

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Notes and References

Literature Cited

aRegion III BTAG Freshwater Screening Benchmarks. 2004. http://www.epa.gov/reg3hwmd/risk/eco/btag/sbv/fw/screenbench.htm

b Karickhoff, S.W. and J.M. Long. Environmental Research Laboratory. U.S. EPA.1995. Internal Report on Summary of Measured, Calculated and Recommended Log K ow Values.

c CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment). 2003. Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines: Summary Table December 2003. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Available at http://www.ccme.ca/publications/ceqg_rcqe.htmlClick here to read the "Exit EPA Website" Disclaimer

d Van den Berg, M., Birnbaum, L., Bosveld, A.T.C., Brunstrom, B., Cook, P., Feeley, M., Giesy, J.P., Hanberg, A., Hasegawa, R., Kennedy, S.W., Kubiak, T., Larsen, J.C., Rolaf van Leeuwen, F.X., Liem, A.K.D., Nolt, C., Peterson, R.E., Poellinger, L., Safe, S., Schrenk, D., Tillitt, D., Tysklind, M., Younes, M., Waern, F., and Zacharewski, T. 1998. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environmental Health Perspectives. 106 (12): 775-792.

eTalmage, S.S., D.M. Opresko, C.J. Maxwell, J.E. Welsh, M. Cretella, P.H. Reno, and F.B. Daniel. 1999. Nitroaromatic munition compounds: Environmental effects and screening values. Reviews in Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 161: 1-156

f Jones, D.S., G.W. Suter II and R.N. Hull. 1997. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1997 Revision. ES/ER/TM-95/R4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. Available at: http://www.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ecorisk/documents/tm95r4.pdfClick here to read the "Exit EPA Website" Disclaimer

g Persaud, D., R. Jaagumagi and A. Hayton. 1993. Guidelines for the protection and management of aquatic sediment quality in Ontario. Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Queen’s Printer of Ontario.

h MacDonald, D.D., C.G. Ingersoll, and T.A. Berger. 2000. Development and evaluation of consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 39: 20-31.

iLong, E.R. and L.G. Morgan. 1990. The potential for biological effects of sediment-sorbed contaminants tested in the national status and trends program. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OMA 52.

jIngersoll, C.G., P.S. Haverland, E.L. Brunson, T.J. Canfield, F.J. Dwyer, C.E. Henke, N.E. Kemble, D.R. Mount, and R.G. Fox. 1996. Calculation and evaluation of sediment effect concentrations for the amphipod Hyallela azteca and the midge Chironomus riparius. International Association of Great Lakes Research. 22:602-623.

k MacDonald, D.D., C.G. Ingersoll, D.E. Smrong, R.A. Lindskoog, G. Sloane, T. Biernacki. 2003. Development and evaluation of numerical sediment quality assessment guidelines for Florida inland waters. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Available at: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/water/monitoring/docs/seds/SQAGs_for_Florida_Inland_Waters_01_03.PDFClick here to read the "Exit EPA Website" Disclaimer

l U.S. EPA. 1996. Eco Update: Ecotox Thresholds. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Washington, D.C. EPA 540/ F95/038. A vailable at: http://www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/ecoup/pdf/v3no2.pdf

m Lemley, A.D. 2002. Selenium assessment in aquatic ecosystems. US Forest Service, Blacksburg, VA.

n Buchman, M.F. 1999. NOAA Screening Quick Reference Tables, NOAA HAZMAT Report 99-1, Seattle, WA, Coastal Protection and Restoration Division, National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration.

o U.S. EPA. 2000. Bioaccumulation Testing and Interpretation for the Purpose of Sediment Quality Assessment.

End Notes

1Value derived from the EqP method with Region III BTAG freshwater values (2004a) and logKow values from Karickhoff and Long (1995b). Only logKow values between 2 and 6 were used, as suggested by the EPA (2000o).

2Congener- and receptor-specific dioxin equivalency.

3Apparent Effects Threshold (AET) marine value from Washington State Sediment Quality Standards as cited by Jones et al. (1997f).

4Lowest Effect Level (LEL).

5Effect Range Lows (ERL), equivalent to the lower 10th percentile of the analyzed data in Long and Morgan (1990j).

6EPA has published Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESB) for metal mixtures including this metal. Implementation of the ESB requires metal concentration data based on the simultaneously extracted metals procedure (SEM) and measurement of the acid volatile sulfide (AVS) concentration during the period from November to May. Application of ESB benefits significantly from the quantification of the organic carbon. BTAG recommends that these metals be screened against listed benchmarks in the screening level ecological risk assessment. Any exceedances should be further evaluated using ESBs following the sampling and analysis guidance in EPA-600-R-02-011 in Step 3 of the baseline ecological risk assessment.

7EqP value calculated using GLWQI Tier II and listed in source document (U.S. EPA 1996l) as "Endosulfan, mixed isomers."

8EqP value calculated using Tier II Secondary Chronic Value from Suter and Tsao (1996). Heptachlor LogKow 6.10 from Syracuse Research Corporation.

9ARCs TEL (Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments Program Threshold Effects Level - 28d test using Hyallela azteca from U.S. EPA (1996h).

10EPA has established an equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach for PAH mixtures in sediments (EPA-600-R-02-013), which may be used as an alternative or in comparison to this empirical screening value. Use of the EqP ΣESBTUFCV as a screening value requires that the PAH analyses include all 34 parent and daughter parameters (i.e., generic correction factors are not applicable). Alternatively, a site-specific correction factor based on 20% of the samples having 34 parameters may be applied for datasets where n≥30.

11Lowest reliable value among AET (Apparent Effects Threshold) tests: Microtox (Buchman 1999n)

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Hierarchy for Selection of Freshwater Sediment Benchmarks

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