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Douglassville Disposal



Prepared for

Hazardous Waste Management Division
Philadelphia, PA 19107

Work Assignment No. - ESS-016
Date Prepared - March 21, 1996
Contract No. - 68-W4-0010
WA Project Manager - Megan L. Green
Telephone No. - 215-922-5090
EPA WA Manager - Amy Barnett
Telephone No. - 215-597-6915






(Following exhibits not available in this online document)



This Community Relations Plan identifies the concerns of local residents and officials regarding the Douglassville Disposal Site in Union Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. This plan presents community relations objectives and recommends activities that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can use during the Superfund clean-up process at the site to achieve the recommended objectives. (Definitions of the words in bold throughout this document can be found in Appendix D, Glossary of Terms.) The primary goals for the community relations program described in this plan are to establish and maintain open communication between members of the community and local, state, and Federal officials interested in the Douglassville Disposal Site; and to disseminate site-related information to residents and other interested parties in a timely manner. To carry-out these goals effectively , EPA will remain responsible for implementing the remedial and community relations programs at the Douglassville Disposal Site.

EPA obtained the information used in this plan from its files, including two previously written Community Relations Plan prepared in December 1984 and December 1990, respectively. The Agency also interviewed EPA personnel, Union and Amity Township representatives, and residents living in the vicinity of the site on January 19 and February 7, 1995.


This section provides a short site history, a history of community relations activities, and an assessment of the key concerns expressed to EPA during interviews conducted in January and February of 1995.


Site Location and Description

The Douglassville Disposal Site consists of approximately 50 acres located in a rural community just west of the town of Douglassville, Pennsylvania. Approximately 60 residents live within one-quarter mile of the site and use wells for their domestic water supply. However, since these wells are upgradient from the site, they are not affected by the contamination at the site.

Most of the Douglassville area consists of cultivated and undeveloped fields used for farming. There also is light residential and industrial development in the area.

Route 724 borders the southern edge of the site and a Penn Central/Conrail Railroad right-of-way runs east to west through the center of the site. The Schuylkill River borders the site to the north and east. The maps on pages 3 through 5 provide additional location details.

The Pennsylvania Scenic Rivers Act of 1972 designated the Schuylkill River as a protected waterway in the area of the Douglassville Disposal Site. This Act seeks to preserve the natural beauty of rivers and to promote their recreational use by the public. Downstream of the site, seven public water suppliers use the Schuylkill River as a water source. The nearest intake of water from the Schuylkill River is four miles downstream from the site. The site itself lies almost entirely within the 100-year floodplain of the Schuylkill River.

The map on page 5 presents a detailed diagram of the Douglassville Disposal Site. The site consists of the following areas:

In the past, several on-site areas exhibited stressed vegetation and were contaminated or were suspected to be contaminated. Samples taken from various locations on the site contained contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organics, oil, grease, and lead.

The processing facility on the site included office buildings, a garage, a water treatment system, a former drum storage area, and an oil-water separator. A flat, cleared area north of the railroad tracks contained lagoons and impoundments used for waste disposal. A small drainage ditch located near the center of the site discharged into the Schuylkill River. It also may have discharged into local and on-site groundwater.

Site History

The site is owned by Berks Associates, Inc. which produced recycled lubrication oil on the site from 1941 until 1985. Berks Associates, Inc. also disposed of solids, liquids, and sludges in various locations on the site between 1941 and 1985.

During heavy rainfalls in 1970, a dike that surrounded a lagoon at the site broke and dumped two to three million gallons of oil sludge into the Schuylkill River. Federal and state agencies began removing the remaining waste from the site, but in 1972 Hurricane Agnes interrupted the removal actions. The storm caused the Schuylkill River to flood the disposal area north of the railroad tracks. This flood carried away another six to eight million gallons of waste material. Following Hurricane Agnes, the lagoons were emptied of all standing liquid and were backfilled with soil from a nearby area. In 1979, the site flooded again, but the backfill prevented the release of any remaining sludges.

Production of recycled lubrication oil continued at the site until 1979, when the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PADER) ordered operational changes. Berks Associates, Inc. found the operational changes to be too expensive to implement. Instead, the company began processing and selling the waste oil as industrial boiler fuel. An oily waste sludge from this process was land-farmed in the northwest sector of the site. The land-farming continued until 1981 when PADER ordered Berks Associates, Inc. to make corrections to the land-farm operations at the site.

In 1979, Berks Associates, Inc. began using a portion of the site to store drums of solvents and wastewater. Site investigations and testing of the drum contents led PADER to order the removal of 730 drums in 1982. In addition to removing drums from the site, an EPA investigation team sampled surface water, groundwater, and soils on or near the site. Based on the findings from this sampling effort, EPA proposed the Douglassville Disposal Site for inclusion on the National Priorities Listin 1982. In September 1983, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List.

EPA Actions

EPA conducted Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study activities at the site from 1984 through 1985. These activities involved only the portions of the site that were inactive at the time. They did not include the area that contained the active processing facility. In September of 1985, EPA signed a Record of Decision. The selected clean-up alternatives discussed in the Record of Decision required EPA to:

Following completion of Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study activities and signing of the first Record of Decision in 1985, EPA determined that additional study was necessary at the site. Throughout 1987 and 1988, EPA conducted Phase II Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study activities. EPA developed the Phase II Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study to provide a baseline for assessment of present and future risks posed by contamination at the site. This baseline was developed by studying in detail the groundwater, surface water, soil, and sediment at the site. Specifically, the study focused on ten contamination sources at the site and examined the type and extent of the contamination resulting from the sources, the soil and water characteristics surrounding the sources, and the potential for future risks to the public and the environment. The Phase II Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study also evaluated various clean-up alternatives.

In October 1987, during the Phase II Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study activities, Hazcon Incorporated, a Texas-based waste management firm, demonstrated a new solidification process at the Douglassville Disposal Site. The process immobilized wastes so that they could not migrate off site. The demonstration was part of the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program established in 1985 to emphasize using new treatment technologies to control hazardous waste. The demonstration at the Douglassville Disposal Site did not necessarily mean that EPA would use this particular type of technology at the site, but that it would evaluate the technology for possible use in the Superfund program.

In addition to the Phase II Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, EPA conducted a Focused Feasibility Study in April 1988. The Feasibility Study examined the disposal of dismantled structures from the former processing facility and on-site wastes and contaminated material. It also examined the use of incineration for disposal of these wastes.

In June 1988, EPA signed a second Record of Decision that recommended the removal and disposal of wastes at the site, decontamination of on-site materials, and dismantling of the former processing facility. The clean-up alternatives discussed in this Record of Decision required EPA to:

In June 1989, EPA signed a third Record of Decision that recommended excavating, incinerating, and capping sludges and contaminated soils for ten additional areas of contamination at the site. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is performing the design for this phase of the cleanup. The selected treatment technologies discussed in this Record of Decision required EPA to:

Phase I of the activities described in the June 1989 Record of Decision included the capping of contaminated areas in the northern portion of the site and the revegetation of those capped areas. EPA completed these activities in May 1993. The remaining work, excavation and incineration of soils and sediments, disposal and burial of treatment materials, imposing of deed restrictions, and establishing Alternate Concentration Limits, are included in Phase II of the activities listed under the June 1989 Record of Decision.

In April 1992, EPA signed an Explanation of Significant Differences to the June 1989 ROD. The Explanation of Significant Differencescalled for a change to the Record of Decision. It discussed the inclusion of a small area of the site, previously thought to be uncontaminated, in the capping of other contaminated areas of the site.


Currently USACE has completed the design plans for on-site incineration at the Douglassville Disposal Site. EPA anticipates that in the spring of 1995, USACE will hire a contractor to perform the actual incineration work. USACE will oversee the contractor's work at the site. The incineration is projected to begin in autumn of 1995.

Incineration burns hazardous waste in a controlled, enclosed chamber. It is a smokeless and odorless procedure. It destroys organic compounds and reduces the amount of the waste. Incineration consists of four basic steps:

The amount of waste to be incinerated at the site consists of two acres, 12 feet deep, of oily filter cake waste. The actual incineration process will run for 12 to 18 months at the site, but contractors will be on site for two and one- half to three years. The incinerator itself is a temporary structure that USACE will remove when incineration is complete. There will be some increased traffic due to trucks bringing in and moving equipment, and contractors and USACE personnel will be on site 24 hours per day.


The Douglassville Disposal Site has attracted little attention from the surrounding community. EPA, township officials, and state representatives involved with clean-up efforts received no responses from the community following news stories of the flooding of the site and the subsequent backfilling of the lagoons. EPA also received no response to the placement of the site on the National Priorities List in September 1983.

In March 1984, EPA held a public meeting to discuss the Phase I Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study work plan. Only eight members of the public attended the meeting and asked very few questions. The questions and comments concerned the extent of contamination and when the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study would be completed.

During August of 1984, EPA circulated questionnaires to residents living near the site. These questionnaires requested information on the residents private water wells. EPA then conducted a door-to-door survey to expand and verify the information on the questionnaires.

From 1984 through 1985 and from 1987 through 1988, EPA sampled private water wells of residents living near the site. Following the well sampling and data analysis, EPA released the test results to the public. The sampling results showed that the local well water was within acceptable drinking water standards.

EPA held a second public meeting in 1985 following the release of the Phase I Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. Approximately 20 people attended this meeting. At the meeting, EPA explained the possible clean-up alternatives for the site.

On September 9, 1987, prior to the on-site demonstration by Hazcon Incorporated of the solidification process, EPA held a public meeting. Very few members of the Douglassville community attended the meeting.

During November 1990, EPA conducted community interviews to gain an understanding of the concerns of Douglassville residents. Most of the residents EPA interviewed expressed concerns regarding the effect of incineration, groundwater contamination, and changing property values. In December 1990, EPA prepared a Community Relations Plan outlining methods for addressing these concerns.

Currently, public concern and involvement regarding the Douglassville Disposal Site and site activities remains low. EPA received a few comments following the issuance of a fact sheet in November 1994 that discussed the upcoming on-site incineration.


During January and February of 1995, EPA conducted interviews with a number of residents, business owners, and local officials in Douglassville. EPA conducted these interviews to inform the public of upcoming site activities and to gain an understanding of community concerns and needs. The following is a summary of the major concerns and questions that residents asked EPA during the interviews.


Most concerns expressed by members of the Douglassville community regarded the planned on-site incineration. USACE tentatively plans to begin the incineration activities at the site in early autumn of 1995. Many citizens expressed concerns about emissions from the incinerator and their effects on human health. EPA explained that incineration is a safe and effective way to dispose of the wastes at the site, and that it is a smokeless and odorless procedure.

Other residents' concerns included the length of time for completion of the incineration and who will be performing this work. EPA informed residents that the incineration itself should run between 12 and 18 months, and that USACE and contractor personnel will be on site 24 hours per day for two and one-half to three years. The Agency also told residents that the incinerator is portable and USACE will remove it once incineration is complete.

To inform the Douglassville community of on-going site activities more effectively, EPA will maintain regular communication by distributing fact sheets and holding information sessions or public meetings. The Agency also will continue to inform local officials of site activities, so that they will be prepared to address local concerns.

Groundwater Contamination

Some residents asked EPA if the groundwater contamination at the site would spread enough to affect their private water wells. EPA informed these residents that the existing contaminated groundwater flows away from the site, toward the Schuylkill River. In addition, EPA told them that their wells are uphill from the site, away from the flow of the contamination. Many of these people expressed their wish for EPA to sample their wells and groundwater on a regular basis to ensure that the contamination has not spread. EPA will look into the feasibility of testing the wells and will address concerns about groundwater contamination through fact sheets mailed to residents and by informing local officials of site activities or any changes in site status.

Property Values

Several of the residents interviewed expressed concerns about the value of their property with a hazardous waste site nearby. EPA informed these people that it is likely that property values will rise after USACE completes the incineration and the site is cleaned up.

Changes to Zoning Ordinances

A number of residents questioned whether placement of an incinerator at the site will change local zoning ordinances and potentially allow for other parties to place an incinerator in the area. EPA explained that the Superfund law supersedes, but does not change, local ordinances. Superfund allows EPA to place an incinerator at the Douglassville Disposal Site only for clean-up purposes. USACE must dismantle it once the incineration is complete. By communicating with local officials, EPA is confident that existing ordinances will not change due to placement of an incinerator at the site.

Overall, it appears that residents newer to the Douglassville area are those most concerned with the site and site activities. Longer-term and older residents seem less concerned with the site. However, some residents told EPA that older residents are "frightened" of site activities and believe that EPA will do whatever it wants, despite community input. EPA assured these residents that the Agency considers community input in all discussions and will continue to do so at the Douglassville Disposal Site. EPA encourages all residents to become involve with site-related activities.


This Community Relations Plan is designed to facilitate interaction between EPA and the public. EPA recommends the following objectives to support the community relations program for the Douglassville Disposal Site:

1. Maintain effective avenues of communication among local, state, and Federal officials.

It is extremely important for EPA to maintain open and clear communication with all groups involved with or affected by the Douglassville Disposal Site. EPA will provide information about site activities on a regular basis to local and state officials so that they may respond accurately to site-related inquiries from local residents. The Agency also will encourage regular and frequent contact with local officials so that information can be exchanged as concerns develop.

2. Provide site-related information to interested parties.

By providing information to interested parties, EPA will increase the public's understanding and knowledge of current and future site-related activities, such as the upcoming incineration at the Douglassville Disposal Site. EPA will provide information regarding site-related developments and activities to local residents and others who express interest in the site. In particular, EPA will provide site-specific scheduling, technical, program, and community relations documents.

3. Provide interested parties with information about the Superfund process and how it relates to the site.

EPA will provide information on the Superfund program and how it relates to the site to all interested parties. The Agency will provide information about Superfund and inform them of new aspects that have developed since the enactment of the SARA. This information will help to clarify EPA's involvement at the Douglassville site. It also will help in educating the public as to how the site became included in the Superfund Program, and how the entire Superfund process works.


EPA recommends the following community relations activities for the Douglassville Disposal Superfund Site. EPA will conduct these activities throughout the Superfund process to ensure that the community is informed of site-related activities and has ample time to express its concerns. These activities are required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by SARA, and are requirements of the Superfund Program, according to the National Contingency Plan:

1. Revise the Community Relations Plan

EPA will revise the Community Relations Plan to reflect community concerns and to update the community relations process for the Douglassville Disposal Site. The plan will address those issues which are specific to the site, such as concerns about incineration. The revisions to the Community Relations Plan also will update site-related information, assess community involvement efforts to date, and develop a strategy for future community relations activities.

2. Establish and update the local information repository.

EPA will update the locally established information repository (see Appendix C for the repository location) with site-related documents and fact sheets as they become available, so that the community is aware of site activities. The repository also will house the administrative record for the site. The information repository must have photocopying capabilities. EPA will maintain the information repository by disseminating site-related documentation or new technical information, when it becomes available.

3. Provide an EPA contact for citizen and media inquiries.

The EPA Community Involvement Facilitator will handle all site-related inquiries and will ensure the prompt release of accurate site-related information. The public may contact the Community Involvement Facilitator with any questions or concerns about the Douglassville Disposal Site. The name, address, and telephone number for the EPA Community Involvement Facilitator, Amy Barnett, can be found in Appendix A.

4. Maintain telephone contact with local officials.

EPA will maintain regular contact with local officials to keep them apprised of site-related progress or delays. By maintaining contact with local officials, EPA can effectively address public concerns that may arise. As events develop at the Douglassville Disposal Site, EPA will contact local officials to keep them informed of the situation.

5. Hold public meetings with residents and local officials.

Public meetings offer a forum for interested citizens to express concerns or ask questions about the site. They also give EPA an opportunity to meet the public and to explain site activities. Due to low attendance in the past, EPA will hold public meetings at the request of the Douglassville community, or as warranted by new developments at the site.

6. Conduct informational workshops.

In addition to holding public meetings, EPA will also conduct informal informational workshops for the community as needed. These workshops will address a single subject, such as current site activities, and may be in the form of posters or small discussion groups. EPA will hold these workshops to address public concerns, answer questions, and explain current and future site activities, in a relaxed and informal setting. The workshops will be held at the township building or schools, to accommodate the public more effectively.

7. Conduct personal visits, as needed.

Personal visits are an additional way of addressing the concerns and needs of the community with regard to the Douglassville Disposal Site. A one-on-one environment is a very informal and relaxed way for EPA to discover what concerns and questions area residents may have about the site. This type of informational setting is an ideal way to meet the needs of the disabled or homebound citizen or of residents unable to attend other public functions. The EPA Community Information Facilitator will conduct personal visits when requested.

8. Prepare fact sheets, as needed.

Fact sheets prepared and distributed to interested parties prior to public meetings are an effective means of establishing and maintaining a relationship with interested parties. Fact sheets for the Douglassville Disposal Site may include information about current site status, future site activities, like the upcoming incineration, and changes to the Superfund process. EPA will prepare fact sheets two to four times a year, as site events progress.

9. Maintain a mailing list.

EPA will maintain an up-to-date mailing list of individuals interested in the Douglassville Disposal Site. This list will include local, state, and Federal officials, and area residents and businesses. The mailing list contains the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of interested parties. EPA uses this list most often for the mailing of site-related information, such as fact sheets. EPA will maintain the mailing list at its Region III Office in Philadelphia, PA. To protect the privacy of the listed persons, EPA will not release the list to the press or the general public.

10. Provide timely news releases to the local media.

In addition to maintaining contact with local and state officials, providing information to the local media is an effective way of informing the community of site-related activities. As important milestones are reached in the remedial process, EPA will provide information to the local news media in a timely manner. In particular, EPA will inform the media about the purpose, location, and time of public meetings and about the availability of site-related information at the local repository.

11. Maintain a toll-free telephone number for residents.

EPA maintains a toll-free telephone number for interested parties to call for information about the Douglassville Disposal Site. Anyone with questions or comments about the site may call 1-800-553-2509.




Federal Officials

Senator Rick Santorum (202) 224-6324
B40 Dirkson Building, Suite 2
Washington, DC 20510

District Office:
Room 9456, Green Federal Building 215-597-9914
600 Arch Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106

Senator Arlen Spector (202) 224-4254
335301 Hart Senate Office Building
Washington, DC 20510

District Office:
Room 9400, Green Federal Building 215-597-7200
600 Arch Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106

Representative Timothy Holdon (202) 225-5546

District No. 6
1421 Longworth House Office Building
Washington, DC 20515

District Office:
633 Court Street 610-371-9931
Berks County Services Center
Reading, PA 19614

State Officials

Governor Tom Ridge 1(800) 932-0784
Office of the Governor
Main Capitol Building, Room 225
Harrisburg, PA 17120

Senator Michael O'Pake 717-787-8925

District No. 11
Room 543, Senate Post Office
Harrisburg, PA 17120

District Office:
Rockland Professional Building 610-929-2151
1940 North 13th Street, Suite 222
Reading, PA 19604

Representative Dennis Leh 717-787-6417

District No. 130
Room 147A, East Wing
Harrisburg, PA 17120

District Office:
Main and Richmond Streets 610-944-0418
Fleetwood, PA 19527

Local Officials

Union Township Board of Supervisors 610-582-3769
177 Center Road
Douglassville, PA 19518
Ronald Kretzman, Chairman 610-582-3769
Gerald Rittenbaugh, Vice Chairman 610-582-3769
Nelson Ott, Supervisor 610-582-3769 Lori Burkhart, Secretary 610-582-3769

Amity Township Board of Supervisors 610-689-6000
P.O. Box 215
Douglassville, PA 19518
Gene Hafer 610-689-6000
Thomas Kirchner 610-689-6000
Jacob Oxenford 610-689-6000
Scott Oxenford 610-689-6000
Myron Wheeler 610-689-6000
John C. Karst, Secretary 610-689-6000
Jay Steinmetz, Manager 610-689-6000


Federal Agency Officials

Amy Barnett 215-597-6915
Community Involvement Facilitator
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Region III
1650 Arch St.
Philadelphia, PA 19103-2029

Victor J. Janosik (3HW24) 215-597-8996
Remedial Project Manager
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Region III
1650 Arch St.
Philadelphia, PA 19103-2029

State Agency Officials

Ronald Klinikowski 610-916-0100
Pennsylvania Department of
Environmental Resources
1005 Cross Roads Boulevard
Reading, PA 19605



Pottstown Mercury Editor: Karl Smith
24 North Hanover Street Advertising Director: Dennis Pfeiffer
Pottstown, PA 19464 Deadline: 3 days prior to run
610-323-3000 Rate: $475 per quarter page
Circulation: 841 weekly

Reading Eagle and Editor: Charles Gallagher
Reading Times Advertising Director: Walter Woolen
c/o Reading Eagle Co. Deadline: 3 days prior to run
P.O. Box 582 Rate: $864.30 per quarter page
Reading, PA 19603 Circulation: 1,235 weekly


WTVE Public Service Announcement
1729 North 11th Street Contact: Kim Bradley
Reading, PA 19604 Deadline: 2 weeks prior to event
610-921-9181 - phone
610-921-9139 - fax

KYW Public Service Announcement Independence Mall East Contact: Jeaneen Rutledge
Philadelphia, PA 19106 Deadline: 4 weeks prior to event

WCAU Public Service Announcement
City Ave. & Monument Rd. Contact: Jo Anne Wilder
Philadelphia, PA 19131 Deadline: 4-6 weeks prior to event

WPVI Public Service Announcement
4100 City Line Avenue Contact: Linda Munich
Philadelphia, PA 19131 Deadline: 3 weeks prior to event


WEEU Public Service Announcement
34 North Fourth Street Contact: Joe Painter
Reading, PA 19601 Deadline: 1 week prior to event

WRAW/WRFY Public Service Announcement
1265 Perkiomen Avenue Contact: David Stein
Reading, PA 19602 Deadline: 2 weeks prior to event



Michael's Restaurant 610-385-3017
Routes 422 & 622
Douglassville, PA 19518

Blackwood Golf Course & Driving Range 610-385-6922
55 Hallman Road
Douglassville, PA 19518

Century 21 - Hartman Realty 610-385-3096
1201 Ben Franklin Highway East
(Routes 622 & 422 East)
Douglassville, PA 19518




Union Township Municipal Building
177 Center Road
Douglassville, PA 19518
Contact: Lori Burkhart, Secretary 610-581-3769
Hours: 8:00 - 11:30 am
12:30 - 4:30 pm
Monday through Friday


Union Township Municipal Building
177 Center Road
Douglassville, PA 19518
Contact: Lori Burkhart, Secretary 610-581-3769
Seating Capacity: 40
Audio Visual Equipment: No
Handicapped Accessible: Yes



Administrative Record
EPA's official compilation of documents, data, reports, and other information that support the selection of a clean-up action. The administrative record is housed in the information repository to allow the public access to the material.
To fill an area with excavated material.
A cover placed over a hazardous waste facility to prevent surface water and rain water from coming into contact with the buried contaminants. A cap is usually made from synthetic liners or clay.
See Superfund
Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD)
A document that presents a significant change to the measures decided upon in a Record of Decision.
Focused Feasibility Study
The Feasibility Study is a study conducted to develop and evaluate options for the cleanup of a site. The Feasibility Study concentrates on a specific method of cleanup.
Water found beneath the earth's surface that fills gaps between soil, sand, and gravel particles. Groundwater often flows more slowly than surface water. When there is an ample amount of groundwater available, it can be used as a potable water supply.
TA method of treating hazardous waste in which the wastes are burned in a controlled environment.
A bioremediation method that uses microscopic organisms to degrade contamination in soil.
An embankment used to prevent flooding.
National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan
A Federal regulation that guides the determination and manner in which a site will be cleaned up under the Superfund program.
National Priorities List
EPA's list of the nation's top priority hazardous waste sites that are eligible to receive Federal money to conduct remedial actions under Superfund.
Record of Decision
A document that describes the remedial clean-up actions selected for a Superfund site and the process by which such actions were selected.
Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study
A report composed of two scientific studies, the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. The Remedial Investigation is the study to determine the nature and extent of contaminants present at a site and the problems caused by their release. The Feasibility Study is conducted to develop and evaluate options for the cleanup of a site.
See Superfund
Material that is found at the bottom of a body of water.
A muddy or slushy deposit.
A liquid used to dissolve or disperse other substances.
Superfund (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - CERCLA
A Federal law passed in 1980 and amended in 1986 by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). The statutes created a trust fund, known as Superfund, which provides EPA with the funds to investigate and clean up abandoned or uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.
Surface Water
All bodies of water that are naturally open to the atmosphere, including rivers, lakes, and streams.
Sloping upward or uphill.
Water remaining after use in a manufacturing process.
100-year Floodplain
A level area of land that is likely to become submerged by floodwaters every 100 years.

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