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Congressional District # 03


EPA ID# OHD093895787
Last Updated: May, 2015

Site Description

The 36-acre Cardington Road Landfill Site (also known as the Sanitary Landfill Superfund Site) is a former solid waste landfill located approximately one mile south of the City of Dayton, Ohio. The closest residence is located less than 150 feet from the site. About 125,000 people draw drinking water from wells located within 3 miles of the site. The site was originally developed as a sand and gravel mine, and subsequently used for solid waste disposal from 1958 until 1980. The landfill accepted municipal wastes and various types of industrial wastes including solvents. 

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the Cardington Road Landfill (a.k.a. Sanitary Landfill and Industrial Waste Disposal Co., Inc.) was primarily used for sand and gravel mining, although limited waste disposal may have occurred during mining operations. Beginning in 1971, the site was operated as a solid waste disposal facility, and the excavated sand and gravel pits were filled with commercial, industrial, and municipal waste. In 1980, after waste disposal activities ended, the site was covered with soil ranging in thickness from two to eight feet. In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Ohio conducted a Remedial Investigation (RI). The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, surface water, and landfill gas were identified as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including benzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene, xylenes, and other organic compounds. Metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead, were also identified as contaminants of concern.

EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) on June 10, 1986. 

Site Responsibility

This site is being addressed through federal, state, and potentially responsible parties' actions.

Threats and Contaminants

On-site groundwater is contaminated with low-level solvents and heavy metals including chromium, copper, cadmium, and lead. The soil contains solvents and the heavy metals chromium, copper, cadmium, and lead. Prior to the initiation of cleanup work at the site, potential health risks to people included accidentally ingesting or coming into direct contact with contaminated soil and ingesting onsite groundwater. These potential risks have been addressed by the cleanup activities implemented at the site, and long-term monitoring continues to ensure protection of human health and the environment.

Cleanup Progress

EPA, the State of Ohio, and several of the Settling Defendants, known as the Cardington Road Coalition (CRC), entered into a three-party Administrative Order by Consent (AOC) which became effective in December 1987. Pursuant to the AOC, the CRC performed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the site. The RI was completed in January 1992, and the FS was completed in November 1992. EPA selected a final cleanup remedy for the site which was documented in a Record of Decision signed on September 27, 1993.

The components of the remedy included a solid waste landfill cap, on-site subsurface gas controls, surface run-off controls, long-term monitoring, institutional controls, and a supplemental site investigation to determine if a groundwater extraction/treatment system was necessary. A Consent Decree between EPA and the Cardington Road Coalition was entered by the court in August 1996. This Consent Decree outlined the requirements for the CRC to perform the Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) for the site. The RD was completed in April 1996. As a result of the supplemental investigation performed during the RD, it was determined that groundwater extraction and treatment was not necessary at the site.

The RA was initiated in the summer of 1997. During installation of landfill gas monitoring probes east of the site, a previously unidentified waste area was discovered and high levels of methane were found in investigative bore holes. Gas monitors were placed in nearby businesses as a precautionary measure. The landfill gas system was extended to include the waste areas found in this area near the site. EPA and the Ohio EPA conducted a pre-final inspection in September 1998, which concluded that all construction was completed. The CRC continues operation and maintenance activities at the site, with oversight by EPA and the State of Ohio.

EPA completed the first five-year review for the site in September 2002, and found the remedy was operating as designed. EPA completed its second five-year review in September 2007, which concluded that the remedy was protective of human health and the environment.

EPA completed the third five-year review for the site on August 13, 2012. This review included a site inspection that was conducted by EPA and Ohio EPA in June 2012. The review found that the remedy is protective of human health and the environment in the short term. The selected remedy eliminates the principal threats identified in the risk assessment by collecting and destroying the landfill gases, preventing direct contact with landfill waste, and reducing infiltration of water into waste, thus preventing the formation of leachate at the site. Long-term protectiveness requires implementation of and compliance with effective institutional controls (ICs), as well as maintaining the site remedy components. Based on the site inspection, monitoring data and communication with site personnel, no inappropriate land or groundwater use was observed. EPA is not aware of site or media uses which are inconsistent with the stated objectives of the ICs.

Long-term groundwater sampling is being conducted at the site. The results of the groundwater sampling events are generally consistent with historical site sampling events. The data indicates that no VOCs were detected above federal Maximum Contaminant Levels. However, there appears to be an increasing trend of some VOCs at one monitoring location, which may be the result of an off-site source. This situation is being monitored via the groundwater monitoring which will continue on a quarterly basis for selected wells throughout the calendar year, with semi-annual monitoring of all remaining wells.

EPA and the CRC are working to implement long-term ICs for the site, which includes 13 separate land parcels. This work is expected to be completed by late 2015.


Remedial Project Manager, U.S. EPA
linda kern (kern.linda@epa.gov)
(312) 886-7341

Community Involvement Coordinator, U.S. EPA
virginia narsete
(312) 886-4359




Site Profile Information

This profile provides you with information on EPA's cleanup progress at this Superfund site.


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