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Congressional District # 08


EPA ID# WID980610380
Last Updated: March, 2015

Site Description

The 13-acre Algoma Municipal Landfill (AMLF) Superfund site is located in Algoma, Kewaunee County, Wisconsin.  The landfill is located about 3,500 feet south-southwest of Silver Creek, 3,000 feet north-northeast of Three Mile Creek, and about 1½ miles from the Algoma city limits.  Lake Michigan is located about 2½ miles east and Krohn's Lake, which is used for recreation, is less than one mile away.  Surrounding land use includes farming and gravel pits.

The AMLF was operated from 1969 to 1983 by the city of Algoma, accepting waste from residential, commercial and industrial sources. In 1970, the landfill received a license from the state to accept municipal refuse.  While most of the accepted waste was municipal refuse, paint wastes, lacquers, thinners, and asbestos wastes were also disposed of at the landfill. When the landfill closed in 1983, the city covered it with clay and topsoil.

The landfill has no bottom liner and is underlain by an upper sand and gravel aquifer and a deep aquifer that are hydraulically connected.  Algoma's municipal water supply wells draw from the deeper aquifer, and local private drinking water wells draw from both aquifers.  Approximately 5,000 people within three miles of the site depend on groundwater as their source of drinking water.  Approximately 180 people live within one mile of the site, all using private water supplies. The nearest residence is 1,100 feet away from the site boundary.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the AMLF site on the Superfund National Priorities List (NPL) in July 1987.

Site Responsibility

The Algoma Municipal Landfill site is being addressed through federal, state, and potentially responsible party (PRP) actions.

Threats and Contaminants

In 1984, EPA detected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals in on-site monitoring wells.  An investigation, completed in 1990, confirmed that the groundwater was contaminated with VOCs.  Exposure to contaminated groundwater through direct contact or ingestion may be a potential health threat.

The potential exists for wetlands, located south of the site, to be affected by the contaminated groundwater that surfaces in the area. However, no release of hazardous materials into the wetlands has occurred. 

Cleanup Progress

In 1988, the city of Algoma and several companies signed an administrative order on consent (AOC) with EPA to perform investigations on the soil and groundwater at the AMLF site. The PRPs completed the investigation in 1990 and the final report indicated that the existing landfill cap did not meet state safety standards and that the groundwater was contaminated with VOCs and heavy metals.  Based on the results of the investigation, a new cover that meets state standards was selected as the final remedy in 1990.

The PRPs signed a consent decree (CD) with EPA and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) to design and install a new landfill cap in 1991.  Construction of the new cover began in early 1993 and was completed that December. Groundwater and landfill gas monitoring will be conducted over time and gas control measures will be applied as well.  Institutional controls (ICs) were to be placed on the site to restrict the use of contaminated groundwater until all cleanup goals have been met.

EPA is conducting five-year reviews (FYRs) at the AMLF site to ensure the continued effectiveness of the selected remedies.  The results of the ongoing groundwater monitoring will be evaluated during a FYR.  The first FYR was completed in 1999 and determined that all construction of cleanup remedies was complete and that adequate site monitoring was continuing.

EPA completed the third FYR at the site in April 2009 and determined that the remedy remains protective of human health and the environment.

EPA completed the fourth FYR at the AMLF site on April 15, 2014.  The review found that the remedy is protective of human health and the environment because it is functioning as intended.  Current site use is consistent with the ROD and ICs are in place that prohibit interference with the existing cover and limit future groundwater use.  The cover prevents contact with hazardous waste and exposures are not occurring.  Long-term protectiveness is assured through continued operation and maintenance of the cover and by maintaining site-wide ICs.

EPA inpected the AMLF site on August 19, 2014 as recommended by the fourth FYR and approved the PRP's Institutional Control Implementation Assurance Plan (ICIAP) on February 20, 2015.

EPA will complete the fifth FYR by April 2019.


Remedial Project Manager, U.S. EPA
howard caine (caine.howard@epa.gov)
(312) 353-9685

Community Involvement Coordinator, U.S. EPA
susan pastor
(312) 353-1325




Site Profile Information

This profile provides you with information on EPA's cleanup progress at this Superfund site.


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