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Buried Valley Aquifer System Buried Valley Aquifer System

Support Document

  Western Essex and Southeastern Morris Counties 
New Jersey
April 1980

I. Introduction

A. Statement of Section 1424 (e)

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), Public Law 93-523, of December 16, 1974 contains a provision in Section 1424(e), which states that:

"If the Administrator determines, on his own initiative or upon petition, that an area has an aquifer which is the sole or principal drinking water source for the area and which, if contaminated, would create significant hazard to public health, he shall publish notice of that determination in the Federal Register. After the publication of any such notice, no commitment for Federal financial assistance (through a grant, contract, loan guarantee, or otherwise) may be entered into for any project which the Administrator determines may contaminate such aquifer through a recharge zone so as to create a significant hazard to public health, but a commitment for Federal financial assistance may, if authorized under another provision of law, be entered into to plan or design the project to assure that it will not so contaminate the aquifer."

This section allows for the specific designation of areas which are dependent upon ground water supplies. Following designation, the review process will ensure that federal agencies will not commit funds toward projects which may contaminate these ground water supplies.

B. Receipt of Petition

On January 15, 1979 the City of East Orange and the Passaic River Coalition petitioned the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator to declare the Buried Valley Aquifer System, defined in the petition as a sole source aquifer under the provisions of the Act. The area underlain by the Buried Valley Aquifer System includes all or parts of twenty-six (26) municipalities. One municipality outside the aquifer system is entirely dependent on the aquifer system. In total, about ninety percent (90%) of the water used in the twenty-six towns underlain by the Buried Valley Aquifer System is derived from ground water in that area.

C. Area of Consideration

The boundary of the area specified in the petition submitted by the City of East Orange and the Passaic River Coalition was defined as is generally the Central Basin of the Passaic River Watershed as defined by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers with some modifications. The area is bordered on the north by Hook Mountain (a basaltic lava flow) and by a line which roughlybisects the Town of Montville. The western boundary is defined by the trace of the Ramapo Fault and the beginning of the Highlands Physiographic Province. The boundary to the south and the east is formed by the Second Watchung Mountain range, including portions of Union, Essex and Somerset Counties, New Jersey.

II. Hydrogeology

A. Geologic Framework

Two different types of aquifers occur in the area and these form the aquifer system for the area petitioned. One, of regional extent, underlies the entire area and is comprised of consolidated rocks of Triassic Age. The other consists of unconsolidated rocks of Quaternary Age which are buried valley or valley-fill deposits of sand or sand and gravel. Ground water flows from the upland or hill areas, underlain by Triassic rocks into lowland areas underlain by Quaternary unconsolidated deposits. Under natural conditions ground water discharges into streams and swamps that drain the low areas. Because ground water flows from the rocks of Triassic Age into the unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary Age, the two types of aquifers are hydraulically interconnected and comprise a ground water system.

Most of the water pumped for public supply in the service area of the Buried Valley aquifer system is derived from Quaternary Age deposits. In 1978 approximately 42.24 mgd was withdrawn for public supply from sand and gravel in the petitioned aquifer. The total the Buried Valley aquifer system exceeds that served by public water supplies (approximately 600,000 people).

B. Geologic Setting

The Buried Valley Aquifer System area lies in north-central of Morris, Union, Essex, and Somerset Counties, New Jersey. The bedrock formations generally trend in a southwest-northeast direction. Bedrock and surficial formations range in age from Precambrian to Cenozoic, increasing in age generally with depth from the surface. The different ages and erosiveness of the bedrock formations have resulted in several different types of surface typography. These are grouped as physiographic provinces, of which are recognized in New Jersey. The Buried Valley Aquifer Systems are located in the Piedmont Province, except for the streamflow source zone which is essentially the same as the Rockaway River watershed in the Highlands Province.

1. Key Geologic Events in Northern New Jersey

Northern New Jersey, the location of the Buried Valley Aquifer Systems, has been marked by three major events: 1) the creation and erosion of the Appalachian Mountains; 2) the creation of the Newark Basin in the Piedmont Province; and 3) the effects of several glaciation episodes across much of the area.

a. The Ridge & Valley and Highlands Provinces

The geologic processes which occurred in New Jersey over the hundreds of millions of years through the Precambrian and Paleozoic Eras produced complex series of rock types. Sediments were deposited and compressed into rocks. The rocks were subsequently folded and faulted, intruded with volcanic materials, and metamorphosed by heat and pressure. The following rock types resulted: granite, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, limestone, dolomite, siltstone, claystone, shale, and sandstone.

The distribution of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks is limited to the northwestern section of New Jersey in the Ridge and Valley and the Highlands physiographic provinces, Fenneman (1938). Precambrian formations are poor aquifers.

The Paleozoic rocks also are generally poor aquifers, with the exception of the Kittatiny Formation (dolomitic limestone). The Kittatiny Limestones are located primarily within the long valley running from Picatinny Arsenal in Rockaway Township, southwest toward Chester Township. A connected valley (Flanders Valley) also contains dolomite which extends southwest parallel to the Upper Lamington valley.

b. Formation of the Piedmont Province

The Appalachian Mountains were uplifted at the Paleozoic Era when the European and African plates collided plate. As the plates separated, faulting occurred along the eastern edge of the Highlands and the western edge of the Eastern Uplands creating a basin. Eroded materials from these mountains were deposited into the basin and later became the rocks that occur in the area today.

The basin is called the Newark Basin and the rocks that formed in it are members of the Newark Group. The basin is part of the Piedmont physiographic province which extends in New Jersey from the Delaware River (from Trenton to north of Frenchtown), northeast to the New Jersey-New York line (from Mahwah to the Hudson River). The Piedmont totalsapproximately twenty percent (20%) of the area of New Jersey. The Piedmont is characterized by gently rolling plains two- to four-hundred feet (200-400') in elevation by easily eroded rocks, and several ridges underlain by resistant rocks (Wolfe, 1977).

According to Van Houten (1969), deposition in Triassic Period began with the transport of arkosic materials (poorly sorted feldspar and quartz particles) from the Eastern Uplands forming the Stockton Formation (locally called brownstone) to a depth of 6,000 feet. Coarse materials eroded from the Highlands formed the Hammer Creek Formation, a conglomerate rock approximately 1,000 feet thick. A number of outcrops of the Hammer Creek Formation occur near the western edge of the Newark Basin.

Later in the Triassic Period deposition of these formations ended. A shallow lake formed in the Newark Basin. An alternating series of sediments with rock fragments derived from dissolved materials in the lake water, formed a clay-like rock approximately 3,700 feet thick called the Lockatong Formation. Outcrops of this formation occur at the eastern and western ends of the basin (Van Houten, 1969).

From late Triassic to early Jurassic time, the Brunswick Formation was deposited in the Newark Basin, to a depth of 6,000 feet in the central portion and 16,000 feet in the northeast. Meandering streams transported and deposited muddy sediments eroded f rom the Highlands. The Brunswick is composed mainly of soft red shales, interbedded with sandstone and some conglomerate. The red color of the shale is from iron oxide in the form of mineral hematite (Wolfe. 1977).

Volcanic activity occurred in the Newark Basin during the Jurassic Period. Fissures formed in the earth's surface resulting in a flow of basalt. Deposition of the Brunswick Formation continued in the periods of the lava flows. Three separate periods of volcanic activity occurred, each with numerous individual the flows. Later faulting caused the flows and the Brunswick Formation to be tilted to the northwest. After an extended period of erosion the basalt flows were exposed forming the Watchung Mountains.

The bedrock of the area, is composed of Precambrian rocks occurring in the Highlands Province, the Hammer Creek Formation cropping out in a few places along the eastern edge of the Highlands, the Watchung Basalt forming three ridges called the Watchung Mountains, and the BrunswickFormation in the remainder of the area. The Stockton and Lockatong Formations are far below the earth's surface in this area and are of little significance to the region's ground water resources.

c. Glaciation

As important as the bedrock is, the results of glaciation in the Quaternary Period, are of greater significance. The latest Pleistocene glaciation began approximately 80,000 years ago. This ice advance, called the Wisconsin Glaciation, reached its maximum extent in New Jersey about 18,000 years ago and receded about 11,000 years ago (Wolfe, 1977). The maximum extent of this glaciation is marked by a terminal moraine, which extends from Perth Amboy through northern Middlesex County, the Union-Somerset County boundary, and across the center of Morris County, passing through the towns of the Chatham, Madison and Morristown, and into the Rockaway River watershed.

The ice acted as a giant bulldozer pushing and carrying great quantities of soil ant rock in, under, and on top of the front of the ice. When melting along the front of the glacier halts its forward movement, these materials are deposited in a line at the face of the glacier in a moraine. Within a moraine, materials of all sizes are mixed together in deposits called glacial till. Moraines in the region consist of both the terminal moraine (a long ridge along the farthest advance of the glacier) and ground moraines (flat beds of glacial till deposited on the land surface). The melting water then carried some of the glacial materials and deposited the particles in a stratified manner. That is, the clays, silts, sands and gravels are separated in layers and over distance because of the capacity of moving water to carry fine materials farther than coarse ones. Many of the sand and gravel pits now mined for construction materials were created in this manner. In some areas, large amounts of stratified materials were deposited in preglacial channels and valleys. These sands and gravels constitute the Buried Valley Aquifer Systems on which much of the area depends for its water supply.

d. Aquifers of the Buried Valley Area

In consolidated rocks found are shale, sandstone, and basalt - both porosity and permeability are dependent on secondary fractures, joints, faults, and solution channels, because the rocks are basically not porous in their solid unbroken state. Sandstone usually is more productive as aquifers materials than other bedrocks because the cementing materials between the grains may be absent in places or it may have been removed by solution.

Unconsolidated materials such as glacial deposits and alluvial deposits along streams usually make more produce aquifers than the crystalline rocks. The best aquifers are composed of sands or gravels which have both high capacity for storing water and high permeability for transmitting it. Some sand and gravel deposits are not well sorted and have much of the space between the large grains filled with silt and clay. In such cases, their porosity and water-transmitting capacity are greatly reduced.

1. Precambrian Rocks

The varied types of rock of Precambrian age serve as aquifers in the Highlands Province portion of Morris County, but none are located in Essex, Somerset or Union Counties. Nearly all ground water supplied from Precambrian rocks occurs in fractures, often close to the rock surface. Therefore, the amount of water available from these rocks depends on the size and number of intersecting fractures. The yield of such rocks can vary considerably within a short distance, both horizontally and vertically. Because fractures are wider toward the surface due to weathering, a well in Precambrian rock is unlikely to supply much water below three-hundred feet (300'). The seventy-nine (79) large-diameter public supply, industrial, and commercial wells in Precambrian rock that operated in 1965 throughout Morris County yielded an approximate average of 121 gallons per minute (gpm), and the maximum and minimum yields were 400 and 5 gpm respectively. The larger amounts are usually associated with fault zones (Gill and Vecch ioli, 1965).

2. Carbonate Rocks

The primary carbonate rock aquifer in the area is that of the Kittatiny Formation. This is a long, deep, narrow bed of dolomitic limestone from the Paleozoic Era. Gill and Vecchioli (1965) reported that the five major wells developed in the dolomite at the time had yields ranging from 40 to 380 gpm. They suggested that the Kittatiny Formation had the potential for moderate to large ground water supplies. The Alamatong well field has a well with a yield of 500 gpm and the potential for greater yields, in the Lightsville Dolomite. Other dolomite wells have yields of up to 3,000 gpm in the Pequest Valley (Warren County).

3. Newark Group: Brunswick Formation

The Brunswick Formation serves as an aquifer in the following communities of the Buried Valley Aquifer Systems: Chatham Borough, East Hanover Township, Florham Park Borough, Hanover Township, Lincoln Park Borough, Montville Township, Morris Township, Town ofMorristown, Parsippany-Troy Hil1s Township,. and Passaic Township in Morris County; Caldwell Borough, Fairfield Township, Livingston Township, Millburn Township, North Caldwell Borough, Roseland Borough, West Caldwell Borough, and West Orange in Essex County; Bernards Township, Bernardsville Borough and Warren Township in Somerset County; and Berkely Heights Township, New Providence Borough, Summit City in Union County (Gill and Vecchioli. 1965; Nichols, 1968a; Nemickas. 1976).

The approximately 6,000 feet-thick Brunswick Formation is composed of shale with local occurrences of sandy and pebbly consolidated beds. The sandstone ranges from a few inches to twenty (20) feet in thickness. The many joints and fractures in the rock allow for retention and transport of a fairly large volume of ground water. Wells yield from 4 to 650 gpm in Morris County, from 35 to 820 gpm in Essex County, and from 12 to 870 gpm in Union County (Gill and Vecchioli, 1965; Nichols, 1968a; Nemikas, 1976). Wells of greatest yield are usually those between 200 and 500 feet deep where several source zones feed the well, and is usually hard.

4. Newark Group: Watchung Basalt

The Basalt Formation serves as an aquifer in the following communities within the area: Florham Park Borough, Linco1n Park Borough, and Montville Township in Morris County; Essex Fells Township, Fairfield Township, Livingston Township, Millburn Township, North Caldwell Borough, West Caldwell Borough, and West Orange Town in Essex County; Warren Township in Somerset County; and Berkeley Heights Township, New Providence Borough, and Summit City in Union County (Gill and Vecchioli 1965; Nichols, 1968a; Nemikas, 1976). The basaltic flows of the Watchung Mountains serve as a small source of ground water in the area. Water is usually concentrated in gas-created vesicles and fractures in the rock. Wells yield volumes of 30 to 53 gpm from depths of less than 300 feet in Morris County (Gill and Vecchioli, 1965); from 7 to 400 gpm in Essex County (Nichols, 1968a); and from 20 to 164 gpm in Union County (Nemikas, 1976).

5. Pleistocene Deposits

The Pleistocene glacial deposits serve as aquifers in the following communities: Chatham Borough, Denville Township, Dover Township, East Hanover Township, Florham Park Borough, Hanover Township, Madison Borough, Montville Township, Morris Township, Morris Plains Borough, Mountain Lakes, Parsippany-Troy Hills Township, RockawayBorough, Rockaway Township, Roxbury Township and Wharton Borough in Morris County; and Essex Fells Borough, Fairfield Borough, Livingston Township, Millburn Township, and West Orange Township in Essex County (NJDEP).

The stratified deposits produce the largest source of ground water in both Morris and Esssex Counties (77 per cent and 81 percent). Wells yield from 20 to 2,200 gpm and the water is of good quality. The ground water is pumped from the Buried Valley Aquifer System (valley-fill). The valleys existed before the Pleistocene glaciation. In some areas, coarse-grained sands and gravels were washed into the valleys by melting water from the glaciers. Later some of these deposits were overlain by glacial till, by lake sediments or both. Therefore, the location of the Buried Valley Aquifer System is difficult to ascertain by direct observation from the surface.

The primary ground water resources for the Buried Valley Aquifer Systems are contained in the Brunswick Formation of eastern Morris and Western Essex Counties (shale and sandstone), the carbonate rocks of western Morris County (dolomitic limestone) and the Pleistocene deposits of the area. By far the dominant producers are the buried valley aquifers for which the region is named.

C. Ground Water Hydrology

Ground water moves through inter-granular openings in the unconsolidated deposits and through cleavage planes, joints and fractures in the consolidated rocks of the area.

Subregions of the Aquifer Systems

Although evidence mounts that the entire valley-fill aquifer system of the Rockaway, Whippany and Passaic River watersheds are directly connected and therefore a single hydrologic system, a system of subregions are present. The subregions are:

1) Rockaway Valley Aquifer--The entire Rockaway watershed upstream of the Jersey City Reservoir in Parsippany is considered as one system. From upstream to downstream, the Township, Wharton. Dover, Mine Hill, Roxbury, Randolph, Victory Gardens, Rockaway Borough, Denville, Boonton Town and Boonton Township are located within this subregion in part or in whole.

2) Upper Lamington AquifersThe Upper Lamington (or Black) River watershed includes aquifers tapped by the Morris County MunicipalUtilities Authority and Roxbury Water Company, in the municipalities of Mine Hill, Roxbury, Randolph and Chester Township. This subregion is considered separately from the Rockaway, though the aquifers are connected to the Rockaway system to the north.

3) Towaco Aquifer--The Towaco Buried Valley in Montville Township does not connect with the buried valley aquifers of the west, but may connect to the buried valleys of the Northwest Essex Subregion by way of the east through Lincoln Park, Wayne and Fairfield. The Towaco is considered as a separate subregion.

4) Northwest Essex Aquifers--The broad valley-fill sediments of Fairfield and the up gradient aquifers of the Caldwells, Essex Fells and Roseland comprise this subregion. The remaining municipalities of West Essex are included within the Chatham/Millburn Aquifers Subregion.

5) Whippany/Lower Rockaway Aquifers--The aquifer underlying the lower Rockaway River between Parsippany and Montville is apparently not connected to the upper Rockaway system, but rather connects to the south with deposits underlying the Whippany River watershed. Parsippany-Troy Hills is almost entirely within the Whippany watershed, as are Morristown, Morris Plains, Morris Township, Hanover, and western East Hanover. The Rockaway Valley subregion is apparently continuous with the major buried valley which traverses the Troy Brook watershed of Parsippany, but Parsippany is considered separately from the Rockaway Valley.

6) Chatham/Millburn Aquifer--This subregion with the longest history and greatest intensity of use is located just north of the terminal moraine in east-central Morris County and nearby portions of Essex County. The municipalities Madison, Chatham Borough, Florham Park, Summit, Millburn, Livingston and eastern East Hanover comprise the subregion. The Chatham, Southern Millburn, Northern Millburn, Canoe Brook and Slough Brook Buried Valley Aquifers are within the area.

7) Upper Passsic--There are no major buried valley aquifers known in the Upper Passaic, located upstream (south) of the terminal moraine in Chatham Township, Passaic Township, Harding, Summit, Berkeley

Heights, New Providence, Warren Township, Bernards Township, and portions of Mendham and Bernardsville. The subregion relies on ground water from shale and Precambrian rocks, and contributes significantly to the base flow of the Passaic River.

1. Recharge

The recharge area is delineated by the designated valleys and the upland area which drain into them. Ground water flow generally begins on the higher, inter-valley areas, flows outward toward the valley into the unconsolidated, stratified deposits occupying the valley floors and discharges through them into streams, swamps, or lakes. Interception of this flow in the valley by pumping may result in infiltration of surface water into the aquifer. The recharge source zone is defined by recharge to the regional flow of the Buried Valley Aquifer System and is the same as the limits as the aquifer system.

Precipitation occurring within this ground water basin recharges the ground water reservoir. There is little or no ground water connection with adjacent basins under natural conditions, but extreme withdrawal in adjacent areas might influence the boundary of natural recharge for the basin. The contribution of precipitation to ground water varies from place to place within the basin and its overall amount or local extent is unknown.

2. Streamflow Source Zone

The streamflow source zone is the upstream area of losing streams which flow into the recharge area. The inflow of surface water to the valley-fill deposit aquifer takes place where pumping reverses the ground water flow. Where pumpage is great along reaches of the Passaic River recharge occurs from the river to the aquifer. Since the river is a potential contaminating source, the Administrator required to consider the entire streamflow source sole source when evaluating the sole source petition. The streamflow source zone, comprises those streams draining into the area occupied by the Buried Valley Aquifer System. It includes all of the area drained by the Rockaway River and the upper reaches of the Whippany River.

D. Ground Water Quality

Water quality from Precambrian wells is generally good. Hardness ranges from soft (less than 50 ppm) to moderately hard (60-120 ppm); pH ranges from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline; and iron occurs in objectional quantities in some areas (Gill and Vecchioli, 1965).

Water from the Watchung rocks is usually hard, ranging from 60 to more than 180 ppm. Some wells also have high sulfate, iron and manganese levels (Gill and Vecchioli, 1965).

III. Susceptibility to Contamination

The Buried Valley Aquifer System is highly vulnerable to contamination, due to highly soil permeability and shallow depth to ground water. Disposal of pollutants into the aquifers can occur directly from the surface or, where pumpage is sufficient, from streams or lakes. Almost the entire surface area of the ground water basin (Figure 2, Area "A") can be a recharge area to some part of the aquifer system, therefore, when recharge by precipitation occurs, pollutants are carried into the aquifers. Because the area is already largely suburban, pollutants such as septic tank effluent, road de-icing salts and other street runoff are presently degrading water quality in the aquifers. Since the Buried Valley Aquifer Systems is composed of hydraulically interconnected, permeable formations, the systems is especially vulnerable to the introduction and dissemination of this contaminated recharge. Projects in the area which increase this load work to degrade the water and should be skillfully designed so as to avoid significantly increasing the pollutant load.

IV. Alternative Sources of Drinking Water

The Buried Valley aquifer system is drained by the Passaic River. Major contributing streams, flowing in near the mouth of the basin are the Whippany and Rockaway Rivers. The combined low flow (exceeded 90% of the time) at Two Bridges, where the river leaves the ground water basin is about forty (40) cfs (26 M gal/day). The Pompton River joins the Passaic at Two Bridges and increases the low flow to 115 cfs (75 M gal/day). Diversions in 1970 amounted to 320 M gal/day which indicate the extent to which the surface water supplies are already utilized. It appears that surface water supplies are not an alternative supply for the area presently served by ground water. Further, as long as the discharge of ground water withdrawals remains in the Buried Valley Aquifer System, the overall surface water supply need not be impaired.

V. Summary

Based upon the information presented, the Buried Valley Aquifer System meets the technical requirements for SSA designation. More than fifty percent (50%) of the drinking water for the aquifer service area is supplied by the Buried Valley Aquifer System. In addition, there are no economically feasible alternative drinking water sources which could replace the Buried Valley Aquifer System. It is therefore recommended that the Buried Valley Aquifer System be designated a SSA. Designation will provide an additional review of those projects for which Federal financial assistance is requested, and will ensure ground water protection measures, incorporating state and local measures whenever possible, are built into the projects.

VI. Selected References

1. Borough of Chatham Environmental Commission, 1976. Natural Resources-A Study and Inventory for the Borough or Chatham.

2. Geraghty and Miller, Inc., 1976. Ground Water Conditions, City of East Orange Water Reserve. Port Washington, New York 11050.

3. Geraghty and Miller, Inc., 1978. An Evaluation of Ground Water Resources of the Rockaway River Valley with the Communities of Denville, Boonton Township, Town of Boonton, Montville, and Mountain Lakes, New Jersey. Port Washington, New York.

4. Gill, H.E., and Vecchioli, J., 1965. Availability of Ground Water in Morris County, New Jersey. New Jersey Dept. of Conservation and Economic Development, Special Report #25.

5. Meisler, Harold, 1976. Computer Simulation Model of the Pleistocene Valley-Fill Aquifer in Southwestern Essex and Southeastern Morris Counties, New Jersey. USGS Water Resources Investigation 76-25.

6. Morris County Planning Dept., 1971. Morris County Master Plan - Water Supply Element, (prepared by Elson T. Killam Associates, Inc.)

7. Nichols, William D., 1968. Ground Water Resources of Essex County, New Jersey. New Jersey Dept. of Conservation and Economic Development, Special Report #28.

8. Nichols , William D., 1968. Bedrock Topography of Eastern Morris and Western Essex Counties, New Jersey. USGS Misc. Geol. Inv. Map I-594.

9. Thompson, David G., 1932. Ground Water Supplies of the Passaic River Valley Near Chatham, New Jersey. New Jersey Dept. of Conservation and Economic Development.

10. Vecchioli, John and Nichols, W.D., 1966. Results of the Drought Disaster Test-Drilling Program Near Morristown, New Jersey. New Jersey Dept. of Conservation and Economic Development - Water Resources Circular #16.

11. Vecchioli, John, Nichol s, W.D., and Nemickas, B., 1967. Results of the Second Phase of the Drought Disaster Test Drilling Program Near Morristown, New Jersey. NJ Dept. of Conservation and Economic Development, Water Resources Circ. #17.VII. Tables

VII. Tables

Table 1. Population Figures Within Buried Valley Aquifer System

Source of Drinking Water
Municipality Population
% GW
% SW
Co. *
Chatham 9,566
Chatham Twp 8,500
East Hanover 7,734
Florham Park 8,000
Hanover 10,700
Harding Twp 3,249
Madison 16,710
Montville 11,845
Morris Plains 5,540
Mossistown 17,780
Morris Twp 20,000
Parsippany-Troy Hills 57,910
Passaic Twp 8,000
Caldwell 8,719
East Orange 88,000
Essex Falls 2,541
Fairfield 7,230
Irvington 59,742
Livingston Twp 32,500
Maplewood 24,485
Millburn 21,000
North Caldwell 6,790
Roseland 4,605
West Caldwell 11,887
West Orange 43,715
Berkeley Heights 13,023
New Providence 13,796
Springfield 16,000
Summit 23,620
Bernards Twp 14,000
Warren Twp 10,000

* Water Co. = Commonwealth Water Company obtains its water supply from both ground water and surface water sources.

Table 2. Public Water Supply Systems Utilizing the Buried Valley Aquifer System

No. Source Population Treatment
1. Livingston Twp Water Dept. 32,500 Chlorination
2. Southeast Morris County MUA 57,013 Chlorination (Manganese Removal at Black Brook Well Field)
3. East Orange Water Dept. 88,000 Chlorination
4. Florham Park Water Dept. 8,000 Chlorination (excessive Manganese in 1 well)
5. Madison Water Dept. 16,710 Chlorination
6. Chatham Borough Water Dept. 9,566 Chlorination
7. Commonwealth Water Dept. 223,881 Chlorination
8. East Hanover Water Dept. 7,734 Chlorination and Manganese Removal
9. Parsippany-Troy Hill Water Dept. 57,910 Chlorination
10. Montville Water Dept. 11,846 Chlorination
11. Essex Fells Water Dept. 22,655 Chlorination
12. Fairfield Water Dept. 7,230 Chlorination

VIII. Figures

Buried Valley Figures



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