Congressional District # 12
SANGAMO ELECTRIC DUMP/CRAB ORCHARD NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE (USDOI)EPA ID# IL8143609487
Last Updated: December, 2011
The Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (the Refuge) is located approximately five miles west of Marion, Illinois, in Williamson County, Illinois. It is near the center of the southern tip of the state with the Mississippi River approximately 25 miles to the west and the Ohio River approximately 55 miles to the east. The Refuge consists of approximately 43,500 acres of multiple-use land. The land is used as a wildlife refuge and also for recreational, agricultural, and industrial purposes. Prior to and during World War II, the Refuge was managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). U.S. Army and several contractors leased portions of the Refuge from DoD for the manufacture of bombs, land mines, and other explosives as well as metals fabrication, plating, printing inks, and electrical components. Several of these industries reportedly landfilled wastes generated during their manufacturing activities in nearby locations. The Refuge was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1987. Currently, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS), an agency of the Department of Interior (DOI), administers the Refuge.
A remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) was completed in August 1989. The report concluded that the contaminants of concern (lead, cadmium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and explosives) at the Refuge pose a significant threat to human health (mostly recreational users and Refuge personnel) and the environment, including the wildlife at the Refuge.
Affected areas within the refuge are divided into the following eight cleanup projects:
1. Metals Areas Operable Unit;
2. PCB Areas Operable Unit;
3. Explosives/Munitions Manufacturing Areas Operable Unit;
4. Miscellaneous Areas Operable Unit– Site 14;
5. Miscellaneous Areas Operable Unit – Site 36;
6. Water Towers Areas Operable Unit;
7. Additional and Uncharacterized Sites Operable Unit; and
8. Lake Monitoring Operable Unit.
This site is being addressed through federal and potentially responsible parties’ actions. The Department of the Army is the lead agency for the Explosives/Munitions Manufacturing Areas and the Department of the Interior/Fish and Wildlife Service is the lead agency for all other areas.
Threats and ContaminantsGroundwater contaminants include chromium, lead, arsenic, cadmium, PCBs, trichloroethene (TCE), and other chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). Sediments and soils are contaminated with PCBs and various heavy metals. Fish have been contaminated with PCBs; therefore, eating contaminated fish may pose a public health threat. Accidental ingestion of contaminated soil or sediments may also pose a health threat. Fish advisories in a portion of the Crab Orchard Lake have been in effect since 1984. The site is a National Wildlife Refuge and home for mating pairs of bald eagles.
The Record of Decision (ROD), signed on March 30, 1990, provided for the remediation of three areas within the Refuge. The remedy, implemented by DOI, included the excavation and treatment, as necessary, and onsite disposal of soils and sediments contaminated with lead, cadmium, and chromium. About 12,800 cubic yards, out of a total of 36,000 cubic yards of contaminated soils excavated, needed treatment by solidification/stabilization before disposal in an onsite landfill. All remedial/construction activities are complete.
The second ROD, signed on August 1, 1990, provided for the remediation of four areas within the Refuge. The remedy included the excavation and treatment by incineration of soils and sediments, contaminated with PCBs. The remedy also included the excavation and treatment, as necessary, and onsite disposal of soils and sediments, contaminated with lead and cadmium. A consent decree was signed on May 13, 1991, among Schlumberger Industries Inc., the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), and DOI and was entered in the U.S. District Court on August 27, 1992. Schlumberger Industries Inc., as a Settling Defendant, completed the incineration and other remedial activities on October 17, 1997. Approximately 117,145 tons of PCB-contaminated soils were incinerated in an on-site mobile incinerator. PCB-contaminated soil/sediments with levels less than 25 mg/kg were consolidated and backfilled in an on-site repository at Site 32. Lead and cadmium contaminated soil were rendered non-hazardous, and disposed of in an on-site landfill at the refuge.
On June 23, 2000, U.S. EPA signed an explanation of significant differences (ESD) to the ROD for the PCB-contaminated areas within the Refuge. This ESD selected multiphase extraction with limited phytoremediation and monitored natural attenuation as the appropriate remedy to address groundwater contamination in two of the areas within the Refuge. On August 2007, U.S. EPA signed an Amendment to the June 2000 ESD to address two groundwater contaminant plumes. This amendment selected the excavation of TCE-contaminated soil, groundwater extraction and treatment, and Phytoremediation as the remedy for one of the plumes. For the second plume, U.S. EPA selected Monitored Natural Attenuation and Phytoremediation to treat the contaminated groundwater. The groundwater cleanup activities were completed in expected to begin in 2010. Schlumbreger completed the required cleanup activities in 2010. The pump and treat system is in place since April 2011.
The ROD signed in February 1997 by U.S. EPA and the Department of the Army (DA) addressed the cleanup of two of the 15 sites (Sites COC-3 and COP-4), investigated under the Explosives/Munitions Manufacturing Areas Operable Unit (EMMA OU). DA, as the lead agency, completed the cleanup activities in September 2001. Work included the excavation and offsite disposal of soils, containing nitroaromatic compounds greater than 100,000 mg/kg and lead greater than 450 mg/kg. Cleanup included an additional removal of RDX/HMX contaminated soil at Site COP-4 to a depth of two feet below grade. DA also removed unexploded ordnance (UXO) at several areas within the Crab Orchard site. The removal work was completed in November 30, 2000. No cleanup action was necessary at the remaining 13 sites within the EMMA OU.
The ROD signed in October 2001 by U.S. EPA and DOI addressed cleanup of Site 14 (one of the 13 sites investigated as part of the Miscellaneous Areas). In accordance with the Unilateral Administrative Order issued by U.S. EPA on August 30, 2002, Diagraph, an Illinois Tool Works, Inc. Company, implemented the cleanup action at Site 14 which included the excavation, removal, and offsite disposal of soil, contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), lead, and chromium. Cleanup activities at Site 14 were completed in September 2007.
The ROD signed in September 2002 by U.S. EPA and DOI addressed the cleanup of Site 36 (one of the 13 sites investigated as part of the Miscellaneous Areas). No cleanup action was necessary at the remaining sites within the Miscellaneous Areas. Cleanup activities at Site 36 were completed in September 2006.
Surface debris and surrounding soil at three water towers and the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Visitors' Center were contaminated with elevated levels of lead. Early action to remove approximately 2,200 cubic yards of lead-contaminated soil was completed by DOI in May 1993. This action included excavation and offsite disposal of soil and debris with lead levels exceeding 450 mg/kg.
An administrative order on consent, signed among General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems, Inc. (GDOTS), U.S. EPA, DOI, and IEPA became effective in January 2003. GDOTS is currently conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of all suspected areas within the Additional and Uncharacterized Sites Operable Unit.
The third Five-Year Review report (signed in 2006) had recommended the removal of PCB-contaminated soil (not previously remediated) within some areas in the vicinity of the sites 32/33. Schlumberger complied with this recommendation and completed the required cleanup activities in 2007.
On June 30, 2011, U.S. EPA signed the fourth Five-Year Review Report for the Crab Orchard Site. This report concluded that the Site is protective of human and the environment. The fifth Five-Year Review of the Crab Orchard Site is due in 2016.
ContactsRemedial Project Manager, U.S. EPA
nanjunda gowda (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Community Involvement Coordinator, U.S. EPA
AliasesOLIN CORP ORDILL OGDEN ROAD
SANGAMO DUMP/CRAV ORCHARD NWR (USDOI)
SANGAMO ELECTRIC DUMP/CRAB ORCHARD NAT.
US DOI SANGAM CRAB ORCH NWR
US DOI SANGAM CRAV ORCH NWR
OLIN CORP ORDILL D AREA
OLIN CORP ORDILL FIRE STA
CRAB ORCHARD NATL REFUGE
OLIN CORP ORDILL AREA 12
ORDILL WATER TOWER
IMC CHEM TROJAN DIV
SANGAMO ELECTRIC/CRAB ORCHARD NWR (USDOI
OLIN CORP ORDILL I AREA