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Congressional District # 2,5


EPA ID# IND001213503
Last Updated: February, 2012

Site Description

The Continental Steel Superfund site is located along West Markland Avenue in Kokomo, Indiana.  It was operated by Continental Steel and its predecessors from approximately 1914 to 1986, when it ceased operations after filling for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The facility produced nails, wire, and wire fence from scrap metal.  Operations included steel reheating, casting rolling, drawing, pickling, galvanizing, tinning, and tempering. The site is located in a mixed residential, commercial, and industrial use area and is mainly zoned for general use. The closest residents are located within 100 feet east of the property fence line, along South Leeds Street.

The site is situated above three geologically significant aquifers. It encompasses approximately 183 acres and is divided into six operable units, consisting of an abandoned steel manufacturing facility (Main Plant), pickling liquor treatment lagoons (Lagoon Area), a former waste disposal area (Markland Avenue Quarry), a former waste disposal and slag processing area (Slag Processing Area), on-site creeks, and groundwater.

The site was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989.  An interim Record of Decision (ROD) for the demolition and decontamination of the Main Plant buildings was signed in September 1996. A ROD, which outlined the final remedy for the entire site, was signed in September 1998.  It was subsequently amended in 2003 to address new information gathered from predesign investigations performed by the Agency in 2000-2001 and a five-year review performed by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) in 2002.  The second five year review for the site was completed on September 4, 2007.  A five year review report addendum was completed in September 2009.

Site Responsibility

This site is being addressed through federal and state actions.

Threats and Contaminants

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and metals associated with site activities were found (groundwater, soil, sludges and sediments) at the site. Approximately 1,600 people obtain drinking water from private wells within three miles of the site, the nearest one being about 1.3 miles from the site.

Cleanup Progress

Several response actions have been conducted at this site since 1989, significantly reducing the risk the site posed to the nearby community. In 1989-1990, IDEM treated and discharged the waste acid solution and stablized metal sludge from the Lagoon Area. From 1990 to 1994, EPA removed 2,450 buried drums, 1,250 cubic yards of contaminated soil, 90 cubic yards of lead dust, 121 cubic yards of PCBs, 2,284 tons of soildfied soil, over 200 chemicals from a former metallurgical laboratory, and recycled 65,647 gallons of No. 6 bunker oil. Removal of lead-contaminated residential soils was completed in December 1998. Building demolition and decontamination work at the Main Plant was completed in mid-2000.

All design work for the selected remedy was completed in July 2004. This design work was fund-financed, with EPA as the lead agency and IDEM as the technical support agency.  The work (design, construction, implementation) is fund-financed because there are no viable potentially responsible parties (PRPs) at this site.

In the spring of 2005, EPA and IDEM determined that a redesign of the Lagoon Area (eliminating the need for construction of an on-site landfill) would reduce overall cost, provide more redevelopment options, and have greater community acceptance. Work on the redesign was completed in the spring of 2006 and included some changes in the creek and quarry portions of the site since hazardous sediments originally planned to be placed in the on-site landfill would instead be shipped off-site.  The design plans for the Creek Area, the Lagoon Area, Main Plant, and Markland Avenue Query were finalized in 2002-2004, and 2006.

Construction of the Main Plant (OU5) remedy was initiated by IDEM in 2000.  In 2006, IDEM removed 12 underground storage tanks and the associated wastes and 676 cubic yards of buried asbestos containing material.  In addition, IDEM completed the contaminated soil consolidation and the construction of the cover.  The Main Plant clean up work was completed in 2009.  The Remedial Action Report for the Main Plant was finalized on March 12, 2011.

Construction of the sediment dewatering area and drying beds for the Lagoon Area was completed by EPA in 2005.  In April 2007, EPA moblized to begin creeks dredging.  Dredging was completed in December 2007.  28000 tons of contaminated sediments were dredged from the the creeks.  Stabilization and restoration work in the creeks was completed November 2008. The Remedial Action Report for the creeks was finalized on September 8, 2010.   

EPA and IDEM conducted additional studies to determine if VOCs, through vapor intrusion, could be impacting homes located near the Markland Avenue Quarry.   Air and soil gas sampling were performed in June 2003, March 2005, April 2009, and Winter 2010.  The investigations indicated that potential impacts to indoor air through vapor intrusion may exist, it is unlikely that the Quarry is the source of the contaminants.  The contaminants of concerns for the Quarry-impacted groundwater are tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and dichloroethylene (DCE).  Although these contaminats were detected throughout the study are, the lack of detects or the presence of very low concentrations in homes in closest proximity to the Quarry sugguest that the Quarry is not the source.

Markland Ave dredging was completed October 2008.  17,494 cubic yards (27,990 tons) of cantaminated sediements were excavated fro the Quarry.  Quarry backfilling and cover installation began in April 2009 and was completed June 2011.  The Remedial Action Report for the Quarry was finalized on March 12, 2011. 

As part of he American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), $5.9 million was made available in Fiscal Year 2009 to commence work at the Slag Processing Area and to implement the groundwater remedies.  The Slag Processing Area work started September 2009 and was completed October 2010.  The Remedial Action Report for the Slag Processing Area was finalized on August 3, 2011.  The groundwater work started in the Spring of 2010 and is expected to be completed in September 2012.

Success Story

EPA is utilizing free fill available from the the Howard County Kitty Run Storm Water Project for the Markland Quarry bacfill.  This allowed the County to move forward with this much needed Storm Water Project.  This will also save the current phase of the project about $2,000,000 allowing future work to proceed earlier.

Community Involvement

The most recent public meeting was held in April 2008.  EPA and IDEM informed the community about the on-going remedial work at the Main Plant, Wildcat and Kokomo Creeks, Creek Bank restoration, and the future remedial action at the Markland Quarry, the Slag Processing Area, the Acid Lagoon Area, and the groundwater operable units.  EPA and IDEM held a media event in November 2009 to update the public about the $5.9 million in funding made available from the ARRA for this site. 

Property Reuse

EPA worked with the City of KoKomo on reuse plans for the Markland Quarry and the Acid Lagoon Area.  The City of Kokomo is using the Quarry as a storm water retention/detention basin.  The City of Kokomo and the Kokomo Soccer Club will use the Acid Lagoon Area for soccer practices and games, as well as regional tournaments and camps.   

EPA utilized clean fill from the nearby Howard County Kitty Run Storm Water Project for the quarry, helpimg the county move forward with its storm water project, and reduced overall project costs.


Remedial Project Manager, U.S. EPA
nabil fayoumi (fayoumi.nabil@epa.gov)
(312) 886-6840

Community Involvement Coordinator, U.S. EPA
janet pope
(312) 353-0628




Site Profile Information

This profile provides you with information on EPA's cleanup progress at this Superfund site.


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