Congressional District # 03
FOLKERTSMA REFUSEEPA ID# MID980609366
Last Updated: August, 2014
Site DescriptionThe eight-acre Folkertsma Refuse site was operated as a licensed yet improperly zoned landfill, accepting mostly foundry sand and some construction debris. The property was sold in 1969 and operated as an industrial disposal site, until the former owner repurchased it in 1972. Between 1969 and 1972, additional foundry sand and other unidentified wastes were deposited at the site. A pallet repair and manufacturing company erected three pole buildings on the site and started a pallet manufacturing business that continues to operate on part of the site. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) was notified of past waste disposal activities at the site in 1981. In 1983 U.S. EPA examined information describing the disposal activities on the property and determined a preliminary investigation of possible contamination at the site should be conducted. U.S. EPA completed the preliminary investigation in 1984. The Michigan Department of Natural Resources also investigated the property in 1985 and determined there was 40,000 cubic yards of landfilled waste at the site, consisting of foundry sand, chemical products, construction debris, and other industrial wastes from heavy manufacturing operations. However, a later investigation conducted by U.S. EPA estimates there are 57,000 cubic yards of landfilled waste at the site. Approximately 8,000 people live within one mile of the site.
Site ResponsibilityThis site is being addressed through federal and potentially responsible parties' actions.
Threats and ContaminantsGroundwater beneath the landfill was contaminated with arsenic. Sediments from two drainage ditches on the property and landfilled materials contained polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and metals, including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead. Possible health threats could have occurred from direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated groundwater, sediments, or landfilled materials as well as from inhaling contaminated dusts. Contaminated sediments posed an environmental risk because of the possibility that the chemicals could bioaccumulate.
In 1988, U.S. EPA initiated an investigation to determine the type and extent of contamination at the site and to identify alternative technologies for cleanups. The study was completed in 1990, and U.S. EPA selected a final cleanup remedy for the site in 1991. The final cleanup remedy involved excavating contaminated sediments at the site and placing these sediments in the landfill. A clay cap was then constructed over the contaminated sediments and landfill materials. In addition, improved drains provided for continued drainage of the site, and gas vents were placed on each side of the landfill to prevent the buildup of gases. The pallet manufacturing company was relocated to an area north of the landfill limits. Fencing and deed restrictions control access and use of the site, and groundwater and drainage water monitoring ensure the effectiveness of the cleanup.
All construction for the cleanup remedy was completed in 1994. This site was deleted from the National Priorities List on April 10, 1996. U.S. EPA conducted five-year reviews for the site in 1999, 2004, 2008 and 2013. The five-year reviews included interviews, site inspections and a review of monitoring data. The 1999 and 2004 five-year reviews concluded that the remedy was protective of human health and the environment, but recommended continued groundwater, drainage water and gas monitoring. The 2008 five-year review indicated that annual groundwater, drainage water and gas monitoring could be suspended, but recommended collecting groundwater, drainage water and landfill gas samples prior to the 2013 five-year review to confirm that the underground drains and containment remedy continue to work properly.
The potentially responsible parties updated the Operation and Maintenance Plan in 2009 consistent with the recommendations in the 2008 five-year review report. The potentially responsible parties collected groundwater, surface water and landfill gas samples for the 2013 five-year review in September 2012. U.S. EPA completed the 2013 five-year review on November 22, 2013. The 2013 five-year review concludes that the remedy is functioning as intended and protects human health and the environment. The 2013 five-year review recommends updating the 2009 Operation and Maintenance Plan to collect groundwater, drainage water and landfill gas samples every five years to provide data for subsequent five-year reviews.
U.S. EPA is working with the potentially responsible parties to update the 2009 Operations and Maintenance Plan to address the recommendations in the 2013 five-year review. In November 2013 the site owner updated the restrictive covenant for the site property. The updated restrictive covenant includes a grantee, a survey and runs with the land. These modifications will increase the long-term effectiveness of the institutional control.
U.S. EPA will conduct the next five-year review for the site in 2018.
Property ReuseEPA determined the site is ready for use on September 20, 2007.
ContactsRemedial Project Manager, U.S. EPA
karen cibulskis (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Community Involvement Coordinator, U.S. EPA