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Region 7 Air Program

Serving Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska and 9 Tribal Nations


Kansas City Ozone Maintenance Plan

Background of the Plan: The Kansas City area (Johnson and Wyandotte Counties in Kansas and Clay, Jackson and Platte Counties in Missouri) was designated nonattainment with respect to the 1-hour ozone standard in 1978. In 1991 the area was able to demonstrate that it had attained the standard and EPA redesignated the area to attainment in 1992. This plan demonstrated how the area would maintain the ozone standard for the next ten years, i.e., through 2002.

Summary of the Plan: The plan relied on an attainment level of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides to maintain the ozone standard through a combination of control measures. These measures included both stationary and mobile source controls. The state agreed to periodically update the emissions inventory to ensure maintenance of the standard and to implement certain contingency measures if the emissions level is exceeded or the standard is violated.

The Kansas plan was approved by EPA on June 23, 1992 (See 57 FR 27936).

Emission Reductions: The areawide VOC emissions inventory for 1989 that attained the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for ozone less a margin for safety is 236,872 kg/day (260.6 tpd). In 2000, the areawide VOC emissions are projected to be 186,557 kg/day (205.2 tpd), a decrease of 58,503 kg/day (64.4 tpd). Given the margin, EPA concluded that VOC emissions would remain below the action level through the year 2002.

Given that VOC emissions would remain below the action level for the next ten years, EPA wished to determine what increase in NOx emissions, if any, could be anticipated. Even with no growth in VOC emissions, an increase in NOx emissions and the associated changes in atmospheric chemistry could result in violations of the ozone standard. EPA's analysis showed no increase in NOx emissions through the year 2005. Therefore, with VOC emissions at or below the action level and with NOx emissions not increasing, EPA believed the area would be in attainment of the ozone standard for the next ten years.

Stationary Source Regulations: Four stationary source rules were approved as part of this plan. These include:

The plan also relies on continued implementation of stationary source regulations adopted as part of previous State Implementation Plan (SIP) designed to bring the area into attainment. These rules are primarily contained in the section on organic compound emissions of the state's Federally approved regulations.

Mobile Source Control Measures: Mobile source control measures approved in the plan include the Federal motor vehicle emissions control program and reductions in the volatility of gasoline. During the first year of the plan, lower volatility gasoline was provided on a voluntary basis by the petroleum industry. Currently the plan relies on state regulations to control fuel volatility.

A partial revision to the plan which EPA approved on July 7, 1997 (see 62 FR 36212) lowered the volatility of gasoline from 7.8 psi Reid vapor pressure (RVP) to 7.2 psi in response to violations of the ozone standard in 1995. (See section containing additional information below.) This provision is contained in rule KAR 28-19-719, Fuel Volatility.

A plan revision submitted by the state in 1995 and approved by EPA (61 FR18251, April 25, 1996) establishes the current motor vehicle emissions budgets used to ensure that transportation plans conform to the SIP, see 40 CFR 52.870 (e). The budgets are shown in the following table.

Motor Vehicle Emissions Budget (MVEB) for Conformity Purposes

Compounds  2000 MVEB for the KC Area   2010 MVEB for the KC Area 
Non-methane hydrocarbons 87,548 kg/ summer day
(96.3 tpd)
82,885 kg/summer day
(91.2 tpd)
NOx 119,889 kg/ summer day
(131.9 tpd)
120,121 kg/summer day
(132.2 tpd)

Other Features: The state agreed to completing comprehensive VOC point source inventory updates at least twice in each five-year period. For years in which no comprehensive update is performed, the state will update the inventory using source permit and shutdown data.

Area and mobile source inventories will be updated at least once every five years. For years in which no comprehensive area and mobile source inventories are developed, the state will estimate using the most recently available projects from existing area and mobile source inventories.

Updated emission inventories were submitted by Missouri and Kansas on April 12, 1995, and May 11, 1995, respectively. We approved these updated inventories on April 25, 1996 (see 61 FR 18310 and 61 FR 18251). An updated emission inventory was prepared for the Kansas City area for the year 1999. Emissions were then projected for the year 2012. This inventory, as a part of a revised maintenance plan, was submitted by Missouri and Kansas on December 17, 2002, and January 9, 2003, respectively. Both inventories are under review.

Contingency Measures: Kansas committed to reducing the combined Johnson and Wyandotte County VOC emissions by five percent in response to a future violation of the 1-hour ozone standard. In implementing this 5 percent reduction, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) will review the latest emission inventory data, perform a comprehensive evaluation of available control strategies, and select those control measures that provide the greatest air quality benefits and most cost-effective response. The options to be considered for this shall include, but not be limited to, the following: stationary source controls, Stage II vapor recovery, and enhanced vehicle emissions reductions programs. These options will be considered in the order listed as necessary to fulfill the 5 percent reduction obligation. If further violations of the 1-hour ozone standard occur, the KDHE will again review the data and evaluate additional control strategies.

Additional Information: In 1995 (and again in 1997) the Kansas City area violated the ozone standard, thereby triggering the requirement to implement some of the contingency measures.

As a partial response to the 1995 violation, EPA approved (62 FR 36212, July 7, 1997) a reduction in gasoline volatility to 7.2 psi RVP. These restrictions apply only during the summer months when ozone formation is likely to occur.

After extensive public input the state decided to implement reformulated gasoline (RFG) as the measure of choice. EPA conditionally approved the new contingency plan in 1999 (64 FR 28757, May 27, 1999 and the correction in 64 FR 32809; June 18, 1999) giving the state one year in which to opt-in to the RFG program. In 1999, the Governor requested RFG for the Kansas City area but a court decision in January 2000 precluded maintenance areas from opting-in to the RFG program. Consequently, the state chose to implement a lower volatility gasoline measure (7.0 psi RVP). This measure was approved on February 13, 2002 (67 FR 6655, effective March 15, 2002).

Kansas and Missouri worked to establish control measures to provide the additional emissions reductions needed to fulfill the contingency measure requirement. Kansas' additional rule for the control of VOC emissions is Rule K.A.R. 28-19-714, Control of Emissions from Solvent Metal Cleaning (approval 67 FR 66058; October 30, 2002; proposal 67 FR 66096; October 30, 2002). In the same rulemaking the prior conditional approval of the 1998 revised maintenance plan was rescinded and full approval provided.

Kansas also implemented an additional stationary source rule for the control of VOC emissions. Rule K.A.R. 28-19-717, Control of VOC Emissions from Commercial Bakery Ovens was effective December 22, 2000, and approved by EPA on December 12, 2001 (66 FR 64148).

Date for Revision of the Plan: Section 175A of the Clean Air Act requires that the maintenance plan be revised for a second ten-year period. This time period will cover the years 2003 through 2012. A revised maintenance plan and emissions inventory dated December 31, 2002, was submitted to EPA.

EPA Region 7 Contact: Amy Bhesania, (931) 551-7147, bhesania.amy@epa.gov.

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