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Region 1: EPA New England

Sustainable Ports: Cargo Handling Equipment

Strategies

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Retrofit

Purpose

Retrofit (after treatment) technologies can reduce emissions by adding a new, cleaner technology to an older system. Technologies available for cargo handling equipment include Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), CCV Closed Crankcase Ventilation (CCF), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC).  These devices do not improve fuel economy, but can be cost-effective means of reducing impacts on port workers, neighbors and ambient air quality.

EGR:  Recirculates a portion of exhaust back into engine to cool peak combustion temperatures and reduce NOx.

CCV:  Provides a cleaner engine environment by capturing and returning oil in blow-by gasses to the tank.  VOCs are sent to intake system for re-combustion rather than sent out as exhaust.  PM is collected in a filter and removed from crankcase vapors.

SCR: injects urea (or other form of ammonia) into the exhaust stream to react this mixture over a catalyst, reducing NOx emissions.

DOC: oxidizes pollutants in the exhaust stream; can be packaged with the muffler.

DPF: mesh or honeycomb device placed within the exhaust stream to trap and oxidize PM.

Location & Projects

Port of Seattle: all eligible CHE has been retrofitted with DOCs

Port of Cleveland: cranes and forklifts have been retrofitted

Port of Boston: cranes and yard tractors have been retrofitted

Port of Long Beach: hundreds of CHE have been retrofitted

Port of Tacoma: straddle carriers have been retrofitted

Port of LA: hundreds of CHE have been retrofitted

Companies

Companies offering EPA-verified retrofit devices

CAT catalyzed converter mufflers (PDF) (2 pp, 83 K, about PDF)

Engelhard - CMX Catalyst Muffler

Lubrizol Engine Control Systems - AZ Purimuffler, AZ purifier

Johnson Matthey - CEM Catalyst Converter, DPF

Cleaire – DPF

Clean AIR Systems – DPF

Pollution Reduction

Port of Seattle: DOCs reduce PM by 20%, HC by 50%, CO by 40%
Port of Cleveland: DOCs reduce PM by 20%, HC by 50%, CO by 40%
Port of Boston: DOCs reduce PM by 20%, HC by 50%, CO by 40%
Port of Long Beach: 79 tons NOx/year, 16 tons PM/year
Port of Tacoma: DOCs reduce PM by 50% with ULSD, 1 ton of sulfur/year
Port of LA: DOCs reduce PM by 25%

For average pollution reductions by device type, see EPA Clean Ports USA

Cost

DPFs: $5,000-$8,000/unit
DOCs: $1000-$4000/unit

Grants

Port of Boston: EPA: $83,000
Port of Long Beach: EPA & CARB: $2,000,000

Comments

EPA and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) verify retrofit technologies

The Diesel Technology Forum provides information on retrofit devices (and other technologies and fuels)

Western Region Air Partnership DOC retrofit project report (PDF) (8 pp, 105 K, about PDF)

CCV filters need to be changed regularly.

DPFs must be paired with ULSD.

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Repair, Rebuild, Repower

Purpose

It can be cost-effective to replace, rebuild, or repower a piece of cargo handling equipment rather than replace it.  Repowering means modifying or replace an existing engine with a cleaner, more efficient technology of the same type, or with an alternative-fuel engine.  Rebuilding an engine involves taking it apart, cleaning and adjusting components, and replacing/upgrading components to new standards.  Rebuilding an engine can significantly lower emissions and can be cost effective for equipment that is costly to replace.

Properly maintaining and repairing engines can save fuel, reduce emissions and extend engine life.

Location & Projects

Port of Long Beach: repowered 3 yard hostlers

Port of Virginia: rebuilt several engines on RTG cranes

Port of Oakland: repowered 70 heavy-duty vehicles

Cost

Average cost to repower a truck: $21,500
Port of Oakland project: total cost $1.5 million

Grants

Long Beach yard hostlers: EPA $75,000, CALSTART/Westart $525,000
Port of Oakland: received Carl Moyer funding
Port of Houston Authority: $150,000 in EPA funding

Comments

Port of Oakland's project was never finished – seen as restrictive by some.

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Hybrid or Electric Straddle Carrier

Purpose

Straddle carriers can be run as hybrid diesel/electrics or purely on electricity, both of which save fuel and reduce emissions in port areas.

Location & Projects

Port of Tacoma: 7 Kalmar CSC 340 straddle carriers

Companies

Kalmar Industries

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Hybrid or Electric Forklift

Purpose

Electric and hybrid forklifts transport goods quickly and reduce worker exposure to emissions from fuel combustion.  Hybrids can save fuel.

Location & Projects

Many terminals use electric forklifts; suitability of any type/make/model is dictated by terminal operations rather than ports.

Cost

An electric forklift manufacturer claims that each unit will save $700-$1,000 per year due to fewer wearable parts, longer service intervals, and lower energy cost.

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Hybrid or Electric Reach Stacker

Purpose

Reach stackers move incoming, dwelling and outgoing cargo around ports.  Electric and hybrid diesel/electric motors reduce emissions and allow for cleaner-running machines.

Location & Projects

Port of Portland, OR

Companies

Kalmar Industries

Hyster (PDF) (2 pp, 2K, about PDF)

Cost

One manufacturer claims that each unit will save $700-$1,000 per year due to fewer wearable parts, longer service intervals, and lower energy cost.

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Hybrid or Electric Yard Hostler/Tractor

Purpose

Hybrid and all-electric yard hostlers operate efficiently under stop & go conditions and reduce on-dock emissions.

Location & Projects

Port of Long Beach

Port of LA: 20 electric yard hostlers, 5 on-road electric short-haul drayage trucks

Pollution Reduction

Long Beach hybrid yard hostlers reduce NOx and PM by 93% (compared to diesel-only yard hostlers).  Kalmar Industries will integrate hybrid drive system into Ottawa 4x2 yard tractor

Port of LA: Electric_Truck_Demonstration Project Fact_Sheet (PDF) (3 pp, 36 K, about PDF)

Cost

Balqon Corporation stated that an electric yard hostler saves $.60-$1.60/mile depending on the efficiency of the diesel-fueled vehicle it replaces.

At $190,000 to $210,000 per unit, electric yard trucks can cost approximately three times what a diesel-fueled unit would cost, and about twice what propane or natural gas –fueled units cost.

Grants

Long Beach Yard Hostlers: $300,000 from EPA matched by $900,000.

LA yard hostlers: South Coast Air Quality Management District and Port of LA contributed $527,000 for testing this technology.

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Hybrid or Electric Crane

Purpose

Both hybrid diesel-electric and all-electric cranes improve air quality and save fuel.  Hybrid motors capture and store energy generated by deceleration and gravitational pull, and later provide it for acceleration and hoisting.

Pollution Reduction

Vycon hybrid crane reductions of >25% PM, 30% NOx, 35% CO2

Cost

Railpower hybrid RTG crane: 70% fuel savings

Vycon hybrid crane: 30% fuel savings

Georgia Port Authority converted all ship-to-shore cranes to electricity for a  total of $4.7 million in 2003.

Grants

Vycon Flywheel at POLA and POLB: $8,000 from AQMD

Comments

Link between ZPMC and VYCON's REGEN system

Every container crane at the Port of Seattle has been converted to run on electricity.

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