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Region 1: EPA New England

Sustainable Ports: Vessels

Strategies

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Shore Based Power

Purpose

The purpose of shore-based power, often called "cold ironing" or "alternative marine power," is to provide vessels with land-based alternative power (usually electricity from the grid, but sometimes natural gas), allowing them to operate auxiliary systems at dock while their engines are turned off. Shore Based Power can be used with a variety of vessel types, including container ships, cruise ships, fishing vessels, ferries, pleasure boats, and tugs. Benefits include localized and area air quality improvements, and are greatest when land-based power from the grid comes from a relatively "green" source, and displaces the use of bunker (high sulfur marine) fuel. Electrical or other alternative fuel infrastructure/equipment and operating costs range widely by type of vessel and dwell time.

Pollution Reduction

Port of Oakland estimated annual reductions: CO 8,216 lbs, CO2 3,841,488 lbs, NOx 86,944 lbs, PM 723 lbs, SOx 14,456 lbs.

Port of Long Beach: 95% reduction of PM, NOx, SOx per vessel -- 80 tons of pollutants reduced in past 2 years.

Port of Seattle: Princess Cruises reduced CO2 by 2,735 tons in 2005, Holland America Line decreased CO2 by 29% in 2006.

Cost

Port of Seattle: Holland America costs are $3,371 per call; saving $1,192 per call, or $50,064 per year. Princess Cruises costs: $106,000 for electricity, $110,000 for setup, testing, electrician labor.

Juneau Alaska: Landside infrastructure cost $3.2 million. Vessel modification cost Princess Cruises $500,000 and Holland America Line $1.1 million

Each time a cruise ship plugs in to shore power, it costs approximately $5,000

Grants

Juneau Alaska: EPA funds totaling $75,000.

Comments

Wittmar DFMV presentataion on cost savings and emissions reductions (PDF) (15 pp, 396K, about PDF)

Wittmar DFMV uses "Clean Air Marine Power" natural gas in its shore power generators, rather than power from "the grid."

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Emissions Monitoring

Purpose

Emissions monitoring systems can detect potentially hazardous on-board leaks and provide information to help ship owners/operators comply with environmental standards.

Pollution Reduction

These systems do not reduce emissions, but monitor emissions.

Cost

Krystallon's emission monitoring system is paired with its sea water scrubber; payback for both is approximately 6 months.

Emissions monitoring systems can be cost-effective in the long term.  As governments promulgate standards limiting emissions, ship owners may benefit from being able to provide baseline data against which absolute limits or required reductions can be compared.

Comments

Martek Marine offers a fuel savings calculator based on using its MariNOx engine emissions monitor.

Advanced Cleanup Technologies, Inc. has two systems: the AMECS (used for monitoring marine vessel emissions) and the ALECS (used for monitoring on-dock locomotive emissions).

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VOC Recovery System

Purpose

The ship is loaded with backpressure which reduces evaporation and VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions. The pressure essentially works to dissolve these compounds, reducing emissions.

Companies

Venturie AS

Pollution Reduction

No in-transit vapor losses. 35-60% vapor reduction when loading.

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Automated Mooring System

Purpose

With automated mooring technology, ships reduce their speed while approaching the port, resulting in fuel savings and emissions reductions.  It also eliminates the need for ship’s crew to tie up the boat upon reaching the dock.

The MoorMaster is a vacuum and hydraulic -based technology that reduces mooring time to 12 seconds.  As the boat approaches the dock, the vacuum pads extend and latch onto the ship, automatically mooring it.

This technology is not present in the United States at this time.  Cavotec’s Moormaster has been adopted at APMT at the Port of Salalah (Oman), Searoad Shipping Australia, Port of Dover (UK), Toll New Zealand, and St. Lawrence Seaway.

Location & Projects

Salalah, Oman

Dover, England

Companies

Cavotech

Comments

Different MoorMaster designs are available and can be tailored to address port-specific requirements.

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Lubricants

Purpose

Lubricants allow gears to operate under extreme conditions including extreme temperatures and high resistance. Advanced lubricants allow for less frequent oil changes and maintenance. They are generally biodegradable.

Pollution Reduction

Castrol states that its "Bio" line lubricants and oils are 100% biodegradable and are less toxic than conventional mineral oils.

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Vessel Speed Optimization

Purpose

By reducing speed, less fuel is burned, and emissions are reduced.

Location & Projects

Port of Long Beach

Port of LA

Under the POLALB Vessel Speed Reduction ("Green Flag") Program, ships slow down to 12 knots when they come within a 20 mile radius of the port.

Pollution Reduction

LA/LB effort reduces NOx emissions by 1.1 tons/day

Cost

Port of LA: $8.8 million (expected)
Port of Long Beach: $9.9 million (expected)

Port of Long Beach has committed $2.2 million/year to encourage ships to participate in the Green Flag program.

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Fuel Substitution

Purpose

Switching from conventional to cleaner fuels can improve air quality, allow engines to run more efficiently, and benefit the health and well-being of the crew. Alternative fuels for vessels include biodiesel, low sulfur diesel, ultra low sulfur diesel, emulsified diesel and natural gas. Suitability depends on engine type and vessel duty.

Location & Projects

Port of Seattle: Shilshole Marina offers B20 blend to recreational boaters.

Cost

Krystallon (a BP Company) estimates that switching from High Sulfur Fuel Oil to distillate fuel costs ~$350/ton - see The Economic Case.

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Sea Water Scrubber

Purpose

Sea water scrubbers (also known as scrubber bonnets) reduce emissions (primarily SOx and PM) from vessel exhaust systems.

Pollution Reduction

Krystallon Sea Water Scrubber: SOx reduced by 98+% and PM decreased by 80%; small CO2 and NOx reductions. Krystallon's product also includes an emissions monitoring system to aid in reporting vessel emissions. There is some concern about potential marine impacts of contaminated sea water discharged from scrubber systems.

Cost

Krystallon's sea water scrubber: $700k for smallest ships; $3m for largest. Payback versus 1.5% sulphur fuel oil ~2.5 years; payback versus distillate fuel ~2-3 months; cheaper to invest in this technology than to switch to LSD - see The Economic Case.

Grants

Holland America seawater scrubber demo was supported by a $300k grant from EPA, leveraging $700k in matching funds.

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DOCs and SCRs for Ferries

Purpose

Diesel Oxygen Catalysts (DOCs) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are retrofit devices that control engine emissions.

Location & Projects

PANYNJ

NYC private ferries (PDF) (14 pp, 264K, about PDF)

Pollution Reduction

SCRs overall: ~25% reduction in PM and ~80% reduction in NOx.

PANYNJ: SCRs on ferries mean a reduction of 1,000 tons of NOx/yr, and a 50% reduction in PM

Cost

SCR: $1.5 million/ferry

Comments

EPA Clean Ports USA information on retrofit technologies

Potential implementation issues include engine room space, exhaust temperature, and back pressure.

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Repair, Rebuild, Repower

Purpose

It can be cost-effective to replace, rebuild, or repower a vessel rather than replace it.  Repowering means modifying or replace an existing engine with a cleaner, more efficient technology of the same type, or with an alternative-fuel engine.  Rebuilding an engine involves taking it apart, cleaning and adjusting components, and replacing/upgrading components to new standards.  Rebuilding an engine can significantly lower emissions and can be cost effective for equipment that is costly to replace.

Properly maintaining and repairing engines can save fuel, reduce emissions and extend engine life.

EPA Clean Ports USA discussion of options

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Hybrid Tugboat

Purpose

Hybrid tugs can reduce fuel use, emissions and noise by drawing on stored battery power under low-load conditions (~75% of duty cycle). More power is supplied by diesel engines when needed. Battery power is recharged from engine use and shore power.

Companies

Foss Maritime

Pollution Reduction

Estimated 44% reduction in NOx and PM emissions; 20-30% SOx and CO reduction; 20-30%+ fuel savings.

Cost

$5-6 million, up to $8 million, depending on type of tugboat; substantially more expensive than diesel-powered tug

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